Section: 4 | Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds |
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John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 103rd Edition (Internet Version 2022), CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
If a specific table is cited, use the format: "Physical Constants of Organic Compounds," in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 103rd Edition (Internet Version 2022), John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.


This table contains physical constants for 3220 important inorganic comounds. The compounds in this table were selected on the basis of their laboratory and industrial importance, as well as their value in illustrating trends in the variation of physical properties with position in the periodic table. An effort has been made to include the most frequently encountered inorganic substances; a limited number of organometallics are also covered. Many, if not most, of the compounds that are solids at ambient temperature can exist in more than one crystalline modification. In the absence of other information, the data given here can be assumed to apply to the most stable or common crystalline form. In many cases, however, two or more forms are of practical importance, and separate entries will be found in the table.

Compounds are arranged primarily in alphabetical order by the most commonly used name; however, closely related compounds are often grouped together for convenience (e.g., silane, disilane, trisilane, etc.).

Column definitions for the table are as follows.

Column heading Definition
Name Systematic name for the substance; the valence state of a metallic element is indicated by a Roman numeral, e.g., copper in the +1 state is written as copper(I) rather than cuprous, iron in the +3 state is iron(III) rather than ferric
Synonym Another name frequently encountered
Mol. form. The simplest descriptive formula is given, but this does not necessarily specify the actual structure of the compound; for example, aluminum chloride is designated as AlCl3, even though a more accurate representation of the structure in the solid phase (and, under some conditions, in the gas phase) is Al2Cl6; a few exceptions are made, such as the use of Hg2+2 for the mercury(I) ion
CAS Reg. No. Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number; an asterisk* following the CAS RN for a hydrate indicates that the number refers to the anhydrous compound; in most cases the generic CAS RN for the compound is given rather than the number for a specific crystalline form or mineral
Mol. wt. Molecular weight (relative molar mass) as calculated with the 2009 IUPAC Recommended Atomic Weights; the number of decimal places corresponds to the number of places in the atomic weight of the least accurately known element (e.g., one place for lead compounds, two places for compounds of selenium, germanium, etc.); a maximum of three places is given; for compounds of radioactive elements for which IUPAC makes no recommendation, the mass number of the isotope with longest half-life is used
Phys. form. The crystal system is given, when available, for compounds that are solid at room temperature, together with color and other descriptive features; abbreviations are listed below
tmp Normal melting point in °C; the notation tp indicates the temperature where solid, liquid, and gas are in equilibrium at a pressure greater than one atmosphere (i.e., the normal melting point does not exist); when available, the triple point pressure is listed
tbp Normal boiling point in °C (referred to 101.325 kPa or 760 mmHg pressure); the notation sp following the number indicates the temperature where the pressure of the vapor in equilibrium with the solid reaches 101.325 kPa; see Reference 8, p. 23, for further discussion of sublimation points and triple points; a notation “sublimes” without a temperature being given indicates that there is a perceptible sublimation pressure above the solid at ambient temperatures
ρ Density values for solids and liquids are always in units of grams per cubic centimeter and can be assumed to refer to temperatures near room temperature unless otherwise stated; values for gases are the calculated ideal gas densities in grams per liter at 25 °C and 101.325 kPa; the unit is always specified for a gas value

Solubility is expressed as the number of grams of the compound (excluding any water of hydration) that will dissolve in 100 grams of water; the temperature in °C is given as a superscript; solubility at other temperatures can be found for many compounds in the table “Aqueous Solubility of Inorganic Compounds at Various Temperatures” in Section 5 of this CRC Handbook

Qualitative Solubility Qualitative information on the solubility in other common solvents (and in water, if quantitative data are unavailable) is given here; the abbreviations are:
    i = insoluble
    sl = slightly soluble
    s = soluble
    vs = very soluble
    reac = reacts with the solvent
Pvap Vapor pressure in kPa at 25 °C (1kPa = 7.5 mmHg)

Data were taken from a wide variety of reliable sources, including monographs, treatises, review articles, evaluated compilations and databases, and in many cases the primary literature. Some of the most useful references for the properties covered here are listed below.

List of Abbreviations


Ac acetyl
ace acetone
acid acid solutions
alk alkaline solutions
amorp amorphous
anh anhydrous
aq aqueous
blk black
brn brown
bz benzene
chl chloroform
col colorless
conc concentrated
cry crystals, crystalline
ctc carbon tetrachloride
cub cubic
cyhex cyclohexane
dec decomposes
dil dilute
diox dioxane
dmso dimethyl sulfoxide
eth ethyl ether
EtOH ethanol
exp explodes, explosive
extrap extrapolated
flam flammable
gl glass, glassy
grn green
hc hydrocarbon solvents
hex hexagonal, hexane
hp heptane
HT high temperature
hyd hydrate
hyg hygroscopic
i insoluble in
liq liquid
LT low temperature
MeOH methanol
monocl monoclinic
octahed octahedral
oran orange
orth orthorhombic
os organic solvents
peth petroleum ether
pow powder
prec precipitate
pur purple
py pyridine
reac reacts with
refrac refractory
rhom rhombohedral
r.t. room temperature
s soluble in
silv silvery
sl slightly soluble in
soln solution
sp sublimation point
stab stable
subl sublimes
temp temperature
tetr tetragonal
thf tetrahydrofuran
tol toluene
tp triple point
trans transition, transformation
tricl triclinic
trig trigonal
unstab unstable
viol violet
visc viscous
vs very soluble in
wh white
xyl xylene
yel yellow


  1. Phillips, S. L., and Perry, D.L., Handbook of Inorganic Compounds, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1995; Second Edition by Perry, D. L., 2011.
  2. Trotman-Dickenson, A. F., Executive Editor, Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 1-5, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1973.
  3. Greenwood, N. N., and Earnshaw, A., Chemistry of the Elements, Second Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1997.
  4. Wiberg, N., Wiberg, E., and Holleman, H. F., Inorganic Chemistry, 34th Edition, Academic Press, San Diego, 2001.
  5. GMELIN Handbook of Inorganic and Organometallic Chemistry, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.
  6. Chase, M.W., Davies, C.A., Downey, J.R., Frurip, D. J., McDonald, R.A., and Syverud, A.N.; JANAF Thermochemical Tables, Third Edition, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Vol. 14, Suppl. 1, 1985; Chase, M. W., NISTJANAF Thermochemical Tables, Fourth Edition, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph No. 9, 1998.
  7. Landolt-Börnstein, Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, New Series, IV/19A, “Thermodynamic Properties of Inorganic Materials compiled by SGTE”, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg; Part 1, 1999; Part 2; 1999; Part 3, 2000; Part 4, 2001.
  8. Lide, D. R., and Kehiaian, H.V., CRC Handbook of Thermophysical and Thermochemical Data, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1994.
  9. Kirk-Othmer Concise Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1985.
  10. Dictionary of Inorganic Compounds, Chapman & Hall, New York, 1992.
  11. Massalski, T. B., Ed., Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, 2nd Edition, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio, 1990.
  12. Dinsdale, A.T., “SGTE Data for Pure Elements”, CALPHAD, 15, 317– 425, 1991. []
  13. Madelung, O., Semiconductors: Group IV Elements and III-IV Compounds, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1991.
  14. Lidin, R. A., Andreeva, L. L., and Molochko, V. A., Constants of Inorganic Substances, Begell House, New York, 1995.
  15. Gurvich, L. V., Veyts, I. V., and Alcock, C. B., Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances, Fourth Edition, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York, 1989.
  16. The Combined Chemical Dictionary on CDROM, Version 9:1, Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2005.
  17. Macdonald, F., Editor, Chapman & Hall/CRC Combined Chemical Dictionary, <>.
  18. Sangeeta, G., and LaGraff, J. R., Inorganic Materials Chemistry, Second Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2005. []
  19. Stern, K. H., High Temperature Properties and Thermal Decomposition of Inorganic Salts with Oxyanions, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2001. []
  20. Donnay, J.D.H., and Ondik, H.M., Crystal Data Determinative Tables, Third Edition, Volumes 2 and 4, Inorganic Compounds, Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards, Swarthmore, PA, 1973.
  21. Robie, R., Bethke, P. M., and Beardsley, K. M., Selected X-ray Crystallographic Data, Molar Volumes, and Densities of Minerals and Related Substances, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1248, 1967. []
  22. Carmichael, R. S., Practical Handbook of Physical Properties of Rocks and Minerals, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1989.
  23. Deer, W. A., Howie, R.A., and Zussman, J., An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals, 2nd Edition, Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, Essex, 1992.
  24. Linstrom, P. J., and Mallard, W. G., Editors, NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database No. 69, June 2005, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, <>.
  25. Phase Diagrams for Ceramists, Volumes 1–8; ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibrium Diagrams, Volumes 9–13, American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1964–2001.

Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds

NameSynonymMol. form.CAS Reg. No.Mol. wt.Phys. formtmp/ºCtbp/ºCρ/g cm-3Sol./g/100 g H2OQualitative solubilityPvap/kPa at 25 °C
Continued on next page...
ActiniumAc7440-34-8227silv metal; cub1050≈3200 10
Actinium bromideActinium tribromideAcBr333689-81-5467wh hex cry800 subl5.85s H2O
Actinium chlorideActinium trichlorideAcCl322986-54-5333wh hex cry960 subl4.81
Actinium fluorideActinium trifluorideAcF333689-80-4284wh hex cry7.88i H2O
Actinium iodideActinium triiodideAcI333689-82-6608wh crys H2O
Actinium oxideAc2O312002-61-8502wh hex cry19779.19i H2O
AluminumAl7429-90-526.982silv-wh metal; cub cry660.32325192.70i H2O; s acid, alk
Aluminum acetateAluminum triacetateAl(C2H3O2)3139-12-8204.113wh hyg soliddecs H2O; sl ace
Aluminum diacetateAluminum subacetateAl(OH)(C2H3O2)2142-03-0162.078wh amorp powderi H2O
Aluminum ammonium sulfateAmmonium alumNH4Al(SO4)27784-25-0237.146wh powdersl H2O; i EtOH
Aluminum ammonium sulfate dodecahydrateTschernigiteNH4Al(SO4)2·12H2O7784-26-1453.329col cry or powder94.5>280 dec1.65s H2O; i EtOH
Aluminum antimonideAlSb25152-52-7148.742brn cub cry10654.26
Aluminum arsenideAlAs22831-42-1101.903oran cub cry; hyg17403.76
Aluminum borateEremeyevite2Al2O3·B2O311121-16-7273.543needles≈1050i H2O
Aluminum borohydrideAluminum tetrahydroborateAl(BH4)316962-07-571.510flam liq-64.544.5reac H2O
Aluminum bromate nonahydrateAl(BrO3)3·9H2O11126-81-1572.826wh hyg cry62>100 decs H2O
Aluminum bromideAluminum tribromideAlBr37727-15-3266.694wh-yel monocl cry; hyg97.52553.2reac H2O; s bz, tol
Aluminum bromide hexahydrateAlBr3·6H2O7784-11-4374.785col-yel hyg cry932.54s H2O, EtOH, CS2
Aluminum carbideAl4C31299-86-1143.958yel hex cry2100>2200 dec2.36reac H2O

  • aThis is the estimated diamond-graphite-liquid carbon triple point (Ref. 12).

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