Section: 6 | Thermophysical Properties of Water and Steam |
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John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
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THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER AND STEAM

Eric W. Lemmon and Allan H. Harvey

These tables summarize the thermophysical properties of water and steam at equilibrium as accepted by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (http://www.iapws.org) for general and scientific use. The thermodynamic properties are calculated from the equation of state of Wagner and Pruß (Ref. 6). The reference state for these tables is the liquid at the triple point, at which the internal energy and entropy are taken as zero.

Table 1 contains the thermophysical properties of water at 1 bar (0.1 MPa) pressure with temperatures in °C. Table 2 has the same properties for liquid and gaseous states at equilibrium (saturation) as a function of temperature. Table 3 gives the properties along isobars. The column definitions for the three tables are as follows.

Column heading Definition
t Temperature, in °C
P Pressure, in MPa
ρ Density, in kg m-3
H Enthalpy, in units kJ kg-1
S Entropy, in units kJ kg-1 K-1
Cv Isochoric heat capacity, in units kJ kg-1 K-1
Cp Isobaric heat capacity, in units kJ kg-1 K-1
μ Speed of sound, in m s-1
D Static dielectric constant
η Viscosity, in units μPa s
λ Thermal conductivity, in units mW m-1 K-1

In the saturation tables (Table 2), the first line of identical temperatures is for the liquid state and the second line is for the vapor state. A duplicate entry in the isobar table indicates a phase transition (liquid-vapor) at that temperature; property values are then given for both phases. These are identified by the high densities in the liquid and the low densities in the vapor. The temperature scale is ITS-90. Additional calculations at state points not listed below can be obtained by using the NIST Standard Reference Data program REFPROP (Ref. 5) or the water-specific program Steam (Ref. 2).

The uncertainty in density of the equation of state is 0.0001% at 1 atm in the liquid phase, and 0.001% at other liquid states at pressures up to 10 MPa and temperatures to 423 K. In the vapor phase, the uncertainty is 0.05% or less.  The uncertainties rise at higher temperatures and/or pressures but are generally less than 0.1% in density except at extreme conditions.  The uncertainty in pressure in the critical region is 0.1%. The uncertainty of the speed of sound is 0.15% in the vapor and 0.1% or less in the liquid and increases near the critical region and at high temperatures and pressures.  The uncertainty in the isobaric heat capacity is 0.2% in the vapor and 0.1% in the liquid, with increasing values in the critical region and at high pressures.  The uncertainties of saturation conditions are 0.025% in vapor pressure, 0.0025% in saturated liquid density, and 0.1% in saturated vapor density.  The uncertainties in the saturated densities increase substantially as the critical region is approached.

References

  1. Fernández, D.P., Goodwin, A.R.H., Lemmon, E.W., Levelt Sengers, J.M.H., and Williams, R.C., A Formulation for the Static Permittivity of Water and Steam at Temperatures from 238 K to 873 K at Pressures up to 1200 MPa, Including Derivatives and Debye-Hückel Coefficients, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 26, 1125, 1997. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555997]
  2. Harvey, A.H., and Lemmon, E.W., NIST Standard Reference Database 10: NIST/ASME Steam Properties, Version 3.0, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, MD, 2013 <http://www.nist.gov/srd/nist10.cfm>.
  3. Huber, M.L., Perkins, R.A., Laesecke, A., Friend, D.G., Sengers, J.V., Assael, M.J., Metaxa, I.M., Vogel, E., Mareš, R., and Miyagawa, K., New International Formulation for the Viscosity of Water, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38, 101, 2009. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3088050]
  4. Huber, M.L., Perkins, R.A., Friend, D.G., Sengers, J.V., Assael, M.J., Metaxa, I.N., Miyagawa, K., Hellmann, R., and Vogel, E., New International Formulation for the Thermal Conductivity of H2O, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 41, 033102, 2012. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4738955]
  5. Lemmon, E.W., Huber, M.L., and McLinden, M.O., NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties-REFPROP, Version 9.1, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, MD, 2013 <http://www.nist.gov/srd/nist23.cfm>.
  6. Wagner, W. and Pruß, A., The IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 31, 387, 2002. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1461829]

TABLE 1. Thermophysical Properties of H2O from the Triple Point to 100 °C at P = 1 bar (0.100MPa)



t/
°C
P/
MPa
ρ/
kg m-3
H/
kJ kg-1
S/
kJ kg-1 K-1
Cv/
kJ kg-1 K-1
Cp/
kJ kg-1 K-1
u/
m s-1
Dη/
μPa s
λ/
mW m-1 K-1
0.010.1999.840.101860.0000074.21704.21941402.487.8991791.1555.67
100.1999.7042.1180.151084.19064.19521447.383.9741305.9578.78
200.1998.2184.0060.296464.15674.18411482.380.2231001.6598.01
250.1997.05104.920.367204.13764.18131496.778.408890.02606.52
300.1995.65125.820.436734.11724.17981509.276.634797.22614.39
400.1992.22167.620.572374.07344.17941528.973.201652.73628.48
500.1988.03209.420.703774.02624.18131542.669.916546.52640.62
600.1983.20251.250.831253.97654.18501551.066.774466.03651.00
700.1977.76293.120.955093.92514.19011554.763.770403.55659.76
800.1971.79335.051.07553.87284.19681554.460.898354.05666.99
900.1965.31377.061.19283.82044.20521550.458.152314.17672.79
99.6060.1958.63417.501.30283.77024.21521543.555.628282.75677.06
99.6060.10.590342674.97.35881.55482.0784471.991.005812.21824.532
1000.10.589672675.87.36101.55352.0766472.281.005812.23424.564


TABLE 2. Thermophysical Properties of H2O from the Triple Point to the Critical Point with Liquid and Gaseous States in Equilibrium (Saturation)



t/
°C
P/
MPa
ρ/
kg m-3
H/
kJ kg-1
S/
kJ kg-1 K-1
Cv/
kJ kg-1 K-1
Cp/
kJ kg-1 K-1
u/
m s-1
Dη/
μPa s
λ/
mW m-1 K-1
Continued on next page...
0.010.000612999.790.0006120.04.21744.21991402.387.8951791.4555.60
0.010.0006120.00485462500.99.15551.41841.8844409.001.000068.945816.761
100.0012282999.6542.0210.151094.19104.19551447.183.9711306.0578.71
100.00122820.00940712519.28.89981.42691.8947416.171.000129.238417.412
200.0023393998.1683.9140.296484.15704.18441482.280.2191001.6597.95
200.00233930.0173142537.48.66601.43591.9059423.181.000219.544118.087
250.0031699997.00104.830.367224.13794.18161496.578.405890.04606.46
250.00316990.0230752546.58.55661.44051.9118426.631.000289.700918.433
300.0042470995.61125.730.436754.11754.18011509.076.630797.22614.34
300.00424700.0304152555.58.45201.44521.9180430.031.000369.860218.786
400.0073849992.18167.530.572404.07374.17961528.773.197652.72628.44
400.00738490.0512422573.58.25551.45521.9314436.711.0005910.18519.509
500.012352988.00209.340.703814.02644.18151542.469.913546.50640.57
500.0123520.0831472591.38.07481.46631.9468443.211.0009410.51620.261
600.019946983.16251.180.831293.97674.18511550.866.772466.02650.96
600.0199460.130432608.87.90811.47891.9648449.501.001410.85421.043
700.031201977.73293.070.955133.92524.19021554.663.768403.53659.72
700.0312010.198432626.17.75401.49371.9862455.571.002111.19521.860
800.047414971.77335.011.07563.87294.19691554.360.896354.04666.97


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