Section: 6 | Thermophysical Properties of Fluids |
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John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
If a specific table is cited, use the format: "Physical Constants of Organic Compounds," in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

Eric W. Lemmon and Ian H. Bell

These tables give thermodynamic and transport properties of a variety of fluids, as generated from the correlations presented in the references below. The properties tabulated are defined in the table below. All extensive properties are given on a mass basis. Not all properties are included for every substance. The references should be consulted for information on the uncertainties. Column definitions for the tables are as follows.

Column heading Definition
T Temperature, in K
P Pressure, in units of MPa
ρ Density, in units of kg m-3
H Enthalpy, in units of kJ kg-1
S Entropy, in units of kJ kg-1 K-1
Cv Isochoric heat capacity, in units of kJ kg-1 K-1
Cp Isobaric heat capacity, in units of kJ kg-1 K-1
u Speed of sound, in units of m s-1
η Viscosity, in units of μPa s
λ Thermal conductivity, in units of mW m-1 K-1
D Static dielectric constant, dimensionless

Values are given first along the saturation line. The first two rows are the properties at the triple point. The final row gives the properties at the critical point. Two rows are given for each temperature (except at the critical point); the first row gives the values of the liquid phase (note the high density), and the second row gives the values of the vapor phase (lower densities). Following the saturation tables, values are given as a function of temperature for several isobars. A duplicate entry in the isobar section indicates a phase transition (liquid–vapor) at that temperature; property values are then given for both phases. The phase can be determined by noting the sharp decrease in density between two successive temperature entries; all rows above this point refer to the liquid phase, and all rows below refer to the gas phase. If there is no sharp discontinuity in density, all data in the table refer to the supercritical region (i.e., the isobar is above the critical pressure). If the first temperature in the isobars is not an integer, this state point refers to the properties of the liquid at the melting line. All temperatures are given on ITS-90, except those for oxygen, where the equation of state still uses the IPTS-68 temperature scale.

Properties for each fluids are given in individual tables as shown below. Reference state information is included.

Table no. Fluid name Fluid mol. form. Reference state
1 Nitrogen N2 Zero enthalpy in the gas phase at 0 K
2 Oxygen O2 Zero enthalpy in the gas phase at 0 K
3 Argon Ar Zero enthalpy in the gas phase at 0 K
4 paraHydrogen H2 (para) Zero enthalpy and entropy at the saturated liquid state at the normal boiling point
5 Helium 4He Zero enthalpy and entropy at the saturated liquid state at the normal boiling point
6 Methane CH4 Zero enthalpy and entropy at the saturated liquid state at the normal boiling point
7 Ethane C2H6 Zero enthalpy and entropy at the saturated liquid state at the normal boiling point
8 Propane C3H8 Enthalpy = 200 kJ kg–1 and entropy = 1 kJ kg–1 K–1 at –40 °C
9 Carbon dioxidw CO2 Enthalpy = 200 kJ kg–1 and entropy = 1 kJ kg–1 K–1 at –40 °C

 Additional calculations at state points not listed below and for fluids not contained here can be obtained with the use of the NIST Standard Reference Data program REFPROP <http://www.nist.gov/srd/refprop>.

.

References

  1. Arp, V.D., McCarty, R.D., and Friend, D.G., Thermophysical Properties of Helium-4 from 0.8 to 1500 K with Pressures to 2000 MPa, NIST Technical Note 1334 (revised), National Institute of Standardsand Technology, Boulder, CO,1998. [https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.TN.1334]
  2. Assael, M.J., Assael. J.-A.M., Huber, M.L., Perkins, R.A., and Takata, Y., Correlation of the Thermal Conductivity of Normal and Parahydrogen from the Triple Point to 1000 K and up to 100 MPa, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 40, 033101, 2011. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3606499]
  3. Bücker, D. and Wagner, W., A Reference Equation of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ethane for Temperatures from the Melting Line to 675 K and Pressures up to 900 MPa, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 35(1):205-266, 2006. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1859286]
  4. Friend, D.G., Ely, J.F., and Ingham, H., Tables for the Thermophysical Properties of Methane, NIST Technical Note 1325, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO, 1989. [https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.TN.1325]
  5. Friend, D.G., Ingham, H., and Ely, J.F., Thermophysical Properties of Ethane, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 20(2):275-347, 1991. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555881]
  6. Hands, B.A. and Arp, V.D., A Correlation of Thermal Conductivity Data for Helium, Cryogenics, 21(12):697-703, 1981. [https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-2275(81)90211-3]
  7. Harvey, A. H. and Lemmon, E. W., Method for Estimating the Dielectric Constant of Natural Gas Mixtures, Int. J. Thermophys., 26, 31-46, 2005. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10765-005-2351-5]
  8. Huber, M.L., Sykioti, E.A., Assael, M.J., and Perkins, R.A., Reference Correlation of the Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Dioxide from the Triple Point to 1100 K and up to 200 MPa, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 45, 013102, 2016. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4940892]
  9. Laesecke, A. and Muzny, C.D., Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 46, 013107, 2017. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4977429]
  10. Leachman, J.W., Jacobsen, R.T, Penoncello, S.G., and Lemmon, E.W., Fundamental Equations of State for Parahydrogen, Normal Hydrogen, and Orthohydrogen, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 38(3):721-748, 2009. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3160306]
  11. Lemmon, E.W. and Jacobsen, R.T, Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity Equations for Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, and Air, Int. J. Thermophys., 25:21-69, 2004. [https://doi.org/10.1023/B:IJOT.0000022327.04529.f3]
  12. Lemmon, E.W., McLinden, M.O., and Wagner, W., Thermodynamic Properties of Propane. III. A Reference Equation of State for Temperatures from the Melting Line to 650 K and Pressures up to 1000 MPa, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 54:3141-3180, 2009. [https://doi.org/10.1021/je900217v]
  13. Marsh, K., Perkins, R., and Ramires, M.L.V., Measurement and Correlation of the Thermal Conductivity of Propane from 86 to 600 K at Pressures to 70 MPa, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 47(4):932-940, 2002. [https://doi.org/10.1021/je010001m]
  14. Muzny, C.D., Huber, M.L., and Kazakov, A.F., Correlation for the Viscosity of Normal Hydrogen Obtained from Symbolic Regression, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 58:969-979, 2013. [https://doi.org/10.1021/je301273j]
  15. Ortiz-Vega, D.O., Hall, K.R., Holste, J.C., Arp, V.D., Harvey, A.H., and Lemmon, E.W., to be submitted to J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2019.
  16. Quinones-Cisneros, S.E., Huber, M.L., and Deiters, U.K., unpublished work, 2011.
  17. Schmidt, R. and Wagner, W., A New Form of the Equation of State for Pure Substances and its Application to Oxygen, Fluid Phase Equilib., 19:175-200, 1985. [https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(85)87016-3]
  18. Setzmann, U. and Wagner, W., A New Equation of State and Tables of Thermodynamic Properties for Methane Covering the Range from the Melting Line to 625 K at Pressures up to 1000 MPa, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 20(6):1061-1151, 1991. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555898]
  19. Span, R. and Wagner, W., A New Equation of State for Carbon Dioxide Covering the Fluid Region from the Triple-Point Temperature to 1100 K at Pressures up to 800 MPa, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 25(6):1509-1596, 1996. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555991]
  20. Span, R., Lemmon, E.W., Jacobsen, R.T, Wagner, W., and Yokozeki, A., A Reference Equation of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of Nitrogen for Temperatures from 63.151 to 1000 K and Pressures to 2200 MPa, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 29(6):1361-1433, 2000. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1349047]
  21. Tegeler, Ch., Span, R., and Wagner, W., A New Equation of State for Argon Covering the Fluid Region for Temperatures from the Melting Line to 700 K at Pressures up to 1000 MPa, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 28(3):779-850, 1999. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556037]
  22. Vogel, E. and Herrmann, S., New Formulation for the Viscosity of Propane, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 45, 043103, 2016. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4966928]
  23. Vogel, E., Span, R., and Herrmann, S., Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Ethane, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 44, 043101, 2015. [https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4930838]

TABLE 1. Thermophysical Properties of Nitrogen (N2)



T/
K
P/
MPa
ρ/
kg m-3
H/
kJ kg-1
S/
kJ kg-1 K-1
Cv/
kJ kg-1 K-1
Cp/
kJ kg-1 K-1
u/
m s-1
η/
μPa s
λ/
mW m-1 K-1

D
Continued on next page...
Saturation
63.1510.01252867.2-150.72.4261.1762.000995.3311.6173.31.47003
63.1510.012520.674364.785.8380.74991.058161.14.3765.6211.00032
70.00.03854838.5-1372.6321.1302.014925.7220.2159.51.45241
70.00.038541.89671.105.6050.75801.082168.44.8836.3551.00089
80.00.1369793.9-116.62.9031.0692.056824.4145.1139.61.42541
80.00.13696.08979.105.3490.77731.145176.75.6527.5061.00286
90.00.3605745.0-95.523.1471.0202.141719.0102.8119.81.39622
90.00.360515.0884.975.1530.80781.266181.86.4828.8681.00710
100.00.7783689.4-73.213.3760.98322.318605.275.76100.11.36351
100.00.778331.9687.774.9860.85481.503183.37.42910.731.01510
110.01.466621.5-48.493.6010.96672.743476.455.9980.441.32430
110.01.46662.5885.844.8230.92842.062180.88.62613.831.02974
120.02.511523.4-17.873.8511.0114.508317.338.4361.011.26895
120.02.511125.174.174.6181.0994.631172.610.6221.711.06012
126.1923.396313.329.234.21518.301.15559
P = 0.1 MPa (1 bar)
63.1700.1867.3-150.62.4261.1762.000995.6311.6173.31.47007
77.2440.1806.6-122.22.8311.0852.041852.5161.4145.11.43304
77.2440.14.55677.075.4120.77101.123174.75.4357.1741.00214
80.00.14.37980.155.4510.76661.112178.35.6237.4431.00206


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