Section: 6 | Properties of Refrigerants |
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One or more tables in this document differ to those in the book. This is due to space restrictions in the book.
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The table 'Properties of Refrigerants' has one or more different columns to those in the book version.
How to Cite this Reference
The recommended form of citation is:
John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
If a specific table is cited, use the format: "Physical Constants of Organic Compounds," in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.

PROPERTIES OF REFRIGERANTS

This table gives physical properties and safe exposure limits for compounds that have been used as working fluids in traditional refrigeration systems or are under consideration as replacements in newer systems. Some are also used as solvents and blowing agents. Many of the compounds listed are believed to be less harmful to the environment than the traditional halocarbon refrigerants.

Column definitions for the table are as follows.

Column heading Definition
Name Chemical name of refrigerant; listed alphabetically by name
ASHRAE code ASHRAE standard refrigerant designation (Ref. 1); see text for discussion
Mol. form. Molecular formula for refrigerant
CAS Reg. No. Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number
tm Normal melting point, in °C ("tp" indicates a triple point)
tb Normal boiling point, in °C at 101.325 kPa or 760 mmHg ("sp" indicates a sublimation point)
tc Critical temperature, in °C
pc Critical pressure, in MPa
TWA Threshold limit value, expressed as the time-weighted average over an 8-hr workday and 40-hr workweek, for safe exposure to the vapor; in units of parts per million (ppm) by volume
STEL Short-term exposure limit, which should not be exceeded for more than 15 min, in units of parts per million (ppm)

The ASHRAE codes are often prefixed by symbols such as CFC- (for chlorofluorocarbon), HCFC- (for hydrochlorofluorocarbon), or simply R- (for refrigerant). The “R” number assigned to refrigerants is specified by ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34. This system is most useful for the hydrocarbons and halocarbons with one to three carbons; for such molecules the chemical composition can be determined from the number and vice versa. The first digit on the far right is the number of fluorine atoms in the compound. The second digit from the right is one more than the number of hydrogen atoms. The third digit from the right is one less than the number of carbon atoms; for single-carbon compounds, this digit is omitted. The fourth digit from the right is equal to the number of unsaturated carbon–carbon bonds; for saturated compounds, this digit is omitted. The number of bromine and iodine atoms is indicated, if needed, by appending “Bn” or “In” to the digits specified by the above rules, where “n” is the number of bromine or iodine atoms. All atoms not specified by the above are assumed to be chlorine. Appended lowercase letter(s) designate different isomers. Additional rules are used to specify cyclic compounds, ethers, inorganic fluids (R700- and R7000-series), miscellaneous organic compounds (R600-series), and blends (R400- and R500-series).

Further references and additional data on the critical properties may be found in the tables “Critical Constants of Organic Compounds” and “Critical Constants of Inorganic Compounds” in this section. Details on threshold limits are given in Section 16.

References

  1. ASHRAE (2007). ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2007 Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.
  2. ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook 2001, Chapter 19, Refrigerants, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA, 2001.
  3. Platzer, B., Polt, A., and Mauer, G., Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants, Springer, Berlin, 1990. [https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-02608-3]
  4. Sako, T., Sato, M., Nakazawa, N., Oowa, M., Yasumoto, M., Ito, H., and Yamashita, S., J. Chem. Eng. Data 41, 802, 1996. [https://doi.org/10.1021/je950327t]
  5. Schmidt, J. W., Carrillo-Nava, E., and Moldover, M. R., Fluid Phase Equilib. 122, 187, 1996. [https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(96)03044-0]
  6. Salvi-Narkhede, M., Wang, B-H., Adcock, J. L., and Van Hook, W. A., J. Chem. Thermodyn. 24, 1065, 1992. [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9614(05)80017-5]
  7. Fialho, P. S., and Nieto de Castro, C. A., Int. J. Thermophys. 21, 385, 2000. [https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006631512597]
  8. Daubert, T. E., Danner, R. P., Sibul, H. M., and Stebbins, C. C., Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Compounds: Data Compilation, extant 2002 (core with supplements), Taylor & Francis, Bristol, PA.
  9. McLinden, M.O., Lemmon, E.W., and Huber, M.L., The REFPROP Database for the Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants, 21st International Congress of Refrigeration, International Institute of Refrigeration, Paper ICR0443, Washington, DC, 2003.
  10. Lemmon, E.W., Huber, M.L., and McLinden, M.O., NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties - REFPROP, Version 9.0, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, MD, 2010, <http://www.nist.gov/srd/nist23.cfm>.

Properties of Refrigerants



NameASHRAE codeSynonymMol. form.FormulaCAS Reg. No.Mol. wt.tm/ºCtb/ºCtc/ºCpc/MPaTWA/ppmSTEL/ppm
Continued on next page...
Ammonia717R-717H3NNH37664-41-717.031-77.65-33.33132.4111.3572535
Bis(difluoromethyl) etherE134HFE-134C2H2F4O(CF2H)2O1691-17-4118.0305.5147.14.16
Bromochlorodifluoromethane12B1Halon-1211CBrClF2CF2BrCl353-59-3165.365-159.5-3.91554.31
Bromodifluoromethane22B1Halon 1201CHBrF21511-62-2130.920-145-15.6138.95.2
Bromotrifluoromethane13B1Halon-1301CBrF3CF3Br75-63-8148.910-174.4-57.866.913.961000
Butane600C4H10C4H10106-97-858.122-138.2-0.5152.13.791000
Carbon dioxide744Carbonic anhydrideCO2CO2124-38-944.010-56.561 tp-78.464 sp30.987.375500030000
1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane142bHCFC-142bC2H3ClF2CH3CClF275-68-3100.495-130.43-9.12137.164.06
1-Chloro-2,2-difluoroethane142C2H3ClF2338-65-8100.49535
Chlorodifluoromethane22HCFC-22CHClF2CHClF275-45-686.469-157.41-40.896.154.981000
Chloroethane160Ethyl chlorideC2H5ClC2H5Cl75-00-364.514-138.412.3187.25.24100
Chloroethene1140Vinyl chlorideC2H3ClCH2=CHCl75-01-462.498-153.84-13.81525.601
1-Chloro-1-fluoroethane151aC2H4ClFCH3CHClF1615-75-482.50416
1-Chloro-2-fluoroethane151C2H4ClF762-50-582.50453.1
Chlorofluoromethane31HCFC-31CH2ClFCH2ClF593-70-468.478-135.1-9.1154
1-Chloro-1,2,2,3,3,4,4-heptafluorocyclobutaneC317Refrigerant C317C4ClF7377-41-3216.485-39.125
Chloromethane40Methyl chlorideCH3ClCH3Cl74-87-350.488-97.6-24.1143.096.7250100
Chloropentafluoroethane115CFC-115C2ClF5CF3CF2Cl76-15-3154.466-99.4-39.279.93.1411000
1-Chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane124aC2HClF4354-25-6136.476-117-13126.8


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