Section: 7 | Properties of Amino Acids |
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The table 'Properties of Amino Acids' has one or more different columns to those in the book version.
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John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 103rd Edition (Internet Version 2022), CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
If a specific table is cited, use the format: "Physical Constants of Organic Compounds," in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 103rd Edition (Internet Version 2022), John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.


This table gives selected properties of some important amino acids and closely related compounds. Compounds are listed by name in alphabetical order. The three-letter symbol is included for the 20 “standard” amino acids that are the basic constituents of proteins. Structures are given in the following table. Column definitions for the table are as follows.

Column heading Definition
Symbol Three-letter symbol for standard amino acids; table lists amino acids alphabetically by this symbol
Name Amino acid name
Mol. form. Molecular formula of amino acid
Mol. wt. Molecular weight
tmp/°C Melting point, in °C
pKa, pKb, pKc, pKd Negative of the logarithm of the acid dissociation constants for the COOH and NH2 groups (and, in some cases, other groups) in the molecule (at 25 °C)
pI pH at the isoelectric point
Sol./g kg-1  Solubility in water, in units of grams of compound per kilogram of water; a temperature of 25 °C is understood unless otherwise stated; when quantitative data are not available, a qualitative indication is given
V- 2/
cm3 mol-1
Partial molar volume in aqueous solution at infinite dilution at 25 °C

Data on the enthalpy of formation of many of these compounds are included in the table “Standard Thermodynamic Properties of Chemical Substances” in Section 5 of this CRC Handbook. Absorption spectra and optical rotation data can be found in Ref. 3. Partial molar volume is taken from Ref. 5; other thermodynamic properties, including solubility as a function of temperature, are given in Refs. 3 and 5. Most of the pK values come from Refs. 1, 6, and 7.


  1. Dawson, R. M. C., Elliott, D. C., Elliott, W. H., and Jones, K. M., Data for Biochemical Research, Third Edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1986.
  2. O’Neil, Maryadele J., Ed., The Merck Index, 15th Edition, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2013.
  3. Sober, H. A., Ed., CRC Handbook of Biochemistry. Selected Data for Molecular Biology, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1968.
  4. Voet, D., and Voet, J. G., Biochemistry, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995.
  5. Hinz, H. J., Ed., Thermodynamic Data for Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1986. []
  6. Fasman, G. D., Ed. Practical Handbook of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1989.
  7. Smith, R. M., and Martell, A. E., NIST Standard Reference Database 46: Critically Selected Stability Constants of Metal Complexes Database, Version 3.0, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 1997.
  8. Ramasami, P., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 47, 1164, 2002. []

Properties of Amino Acids

SymbolNameSynonymMol. form.CAS Reg. No.Mol. wt.tmp/ºCpKapKbpKcpKdpISol./g kg-1V- 2/
cm3 mol-1
Continued on next page...
Standard amino acids
AlaL-Alanine2-Aminopropanoic acid, (S)-C3H7NO256-41-789.094297 dec2.339.716.00166.960.54
AsnL-Asparagineα-Aminosuccinamic acidC4H8N2O370-47-3132.1182352.168.735.4125.178.0
AspL-Aspartic acidL-Aminosuccinic acidC4H7NO456-84-8133.1042701.959.663.712.775.0474.8
CysL-Cysteine2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid, (R)-C3H7NO2S52-90-4121.159240 dec1.9110.288.145.07vs73.45
GlnL-Glutamine2-Aminoglutaramic acidC5H10N2O356-85-9146.1441822.189.005.6542
GluL-Glutamic acid(S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidC5H9NO456-86-0147.130160 dec2.169.584.153.228.689.85
GlyGlycineAminoacetic acidC2H5NO256-40-675.067290 dec2.349.585.9723943.26
HisL-HistidineGlyoxaline-5-alanineC6H9N3O271-00-1155.154287 dec1.709.096.047.5943.598.3
IleL-Isoleucine2-Amino-3-methylpentanoic acidC6H13NO273-32-5131.173284 dec2.269.606.0234.2105.80
LeuL-Leucine2-Amino-4-methylpentanoic acidC6H13NO261-90-5131.1732932.329.585.9823.8107.77
LysL-Lysine2,6-Diaminohexanoic acid, (L)-C6H14N2O256-87-1146.187224 dec2.159.1610.679.745.8108.5
MetL-MethionineC5H11NO2S63-68-3149.212281 dec2.169.085.7456105.57
PheL-Phenylalanineα-Aminobenzenepropanoic acid, (S)-C9H11NO263-91-2165.189283 dec2.189.095.4827.9121.5
ProL-Proline2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidC5H9NO2147-85-3115.131221 dec1.9510.476.30162582.76
SerL-Serine2-Amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, (S)-C3H7NO356-45-1105.093228 dec2.139.055.6825060.62
ThrL-Threonine2-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid, [R-(R*,S*)]C4H9NO372-19-5119.119256 dec2.208.965.6090.676.90
TrpL-Tryptophanα-Aminoindole-3-propanoic acid, (l)-C11H12N2O273-22-3204.225289 dec2.389.345.8913.2143.8
TyrL-Tyrosine4-Hydroxy-L-phenylalanineC9H11NO360-18-4181.188343 dec2.249.0410.105.660.51

  • slsSlightly soluble.
  • sSoluble.
  • vsVery soluble.
  • 14At 14 °C.
  • 20At 20 °C.
  • 40At 40 °C.

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