Section: 7 | Properties of Fatty Acid Methyl And Ethyl Esters Related to Biofuels |
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John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 103rd Edition (Internet Version 2022), CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
If a specific table is cited, use the format: "Physical Constants of Organic Compounds," in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 103rd Edition (Internet Version 2022), John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.


Robert D Chirico and Michael Frenkel

These tables provide critically evaluated properties and sources of experimental data for fatty acid methyl esters and ethyl esters found in biofuels. All listed property values are based on experimental results reported in Refs. 1 to 103. Critical evaluation was carried out dynamically with the NIST ThermoData Engine (TDE) software (Ref. 104). The software algorithms have been  described in the literature (see Refs. 105 to 110).

Table 1 lists several important properties.Column definitions are as follows.

Column heading Definition
Name Common name of compound
Systematic name IUPAC systematic chemical name
Mol. form. Molecular formula of compound
Acid code Shorthand acid code commonly used; the first number in this code gives the number of carbon atoms; the number following the colon is the number of unsaturated centers (mainly double bonds); the location and orientation of the unsaturated centers follow. The symbols used are: c = cis; t = trans; a = acetylenic center; e = ethylenic center at end of chain; ep = epoxy; thus 9c,11t indicates a double bond with cis orientation at the No. 9 carbon and another with trans orientation at the No. 11 carbon. Additional details on the codes can be found in Ref. 118.
mp Normal melting point temperature, in °C
bp Estimated normal boiling temperature, in °C
ρ25 Density of the liquid phase at 25 °C near pressure p = 0.1 MPa, in kg m–3
ρ50 Density of the liquid phase at 50 °C near pressure p = 0.1 MPa, in kg m-3
ρsat100 Vapor pressure at 100 °C, in Pa
ρsat150 Vapor pressure at 150 °C, in Pa
Cp25 Heat capacity of the liquid phase at 25 °C near pressure p = 0.1 MPa, in J K–1 mol–1
Cp50 Heat capacity of the liquid phase at 50 °C near pressure p = 0.1 MPa, in J K–1 mol–1
η25 Viscosity of the liquid at 25 °C near pressure p = 0.1 MPa, in mPa s
η50 Viscosity of the liquid at 50 °C near pressure p = 0.1 MPa, in mPa s

In some cases, property values for the liquid cannot be evaluated at 25 °C because the compound is solid at this temperature. In such cases,  values are given at 40 °C, as indicated with a superscript “40.” All normal boiling temperatures are estimates based on extrapolation of vapor pressures measured at lower temperatures. Digits in parentheses following a property value give the uncertainty in the last digit(s) of the value; these are the estimated expanded uncertainties (0.95 level of confidence; see Refs. 111 to 113) for the property values. A discussion of uncertainty terminology with particular application to thermodynamic and transport properties is given in Ref. 114.

Compounds are listed in order of the acid code. This is a common shorthand in which the first number represents the number of carbon atoms in the parent fatty acid, and the second number indicates the number of double bonds present. See the table "Properties of Fatty Acids and Their Methyl Esters" for further details on the acid code.

Table 2 provides up to five data sources reporting experimental measurements of the indicated property. Generally, these are the most important sources that were used in the critical evaluation process. The numbers correspond to those in the reference list.

TABLE 1. Properties of Methyl and Ethyl Esters of Fatty Acids

NameSystematic nameMol. form.Acid codeCAS Reg.°Cbp/°Cρ25/kg m−3ρ50/kg m−3psat100/Papsat150/PaCp25/J mol−1 K−1Cp50/J mol−1 K−1η25/mPa sη50/mPa s
Continued on next page...
Methyl Esters
Methyl laurateMethyl dodecanoateC13H26O212:0111-82-05.1(2)268(2)865.4(5)845.6(6)218(6)2660(50)437(2)451(2)2.80(5)1.71(4)
Methyl myristateMethyl tetradecanoateC15H30O214:0124-10-719.0(5)295(10)863.2(10)844.1(6)53.8(3)850(60)501(3)511(2)4.07(8)2.35(5)
Methyl palmitateMethyl hexadecanoateC17H34O216:0112-39-029.6(5)324(6)851(3)40842(2)12.2(10)270(11)572(3)40578(3)3.75(10)403.04(10)
Methyl palmitoleateMethyl cis-9-hexadecenoateC17H32O216:11120-25-8-33.7(6)325865.1(7)846.1(6)9.9(13)242(32)3.75(10)2.2(1)
Methyl stearateMethyl octadecanoateC19H38O218:0112-61-838.7(6)353(8)849.7(10)40842.5(8)2.7(3)84(4)633(5)40641(4)5.0(1)404.0(1)
Methyl oleateMethyl cis-9-octadecenoateC19H36O218:1112-62-9-19.7(5)347(5)871.1(6)853.2(6)3.3(3)102(3)5.6(1)3.1(1)
Methyl linoleateMethyl cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoateC19H34O218:2112-63-0-36.6(5)347(5)883.4(6)865.1(6)3.7(2)106(2)4.4(1)2.7(1)
Methyl linolenateMethyl cis,cis,cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoateC19H32O218:3301-00-8-49(4)348(8)895.1(15)877.1(15)3.4(3)100(3)3.9(1)2.5(1)
Methyl arachidateMethyl eicosanoateC21H42O220:01120-28-146.4(3)371(15)848.7(10)40841.9(10)0.7(2)32(7)700(7)40708(6)6.1(2)404.8(1)
Methyl gondoateMethyl cis-11-eicosenoateC21H40O220:12390-09-2-34(2)378870.2(15)852.3(15)0.7(2)31(5)7.4(1)4.1(1)
Methyl behenateMethyl docosanoateC23H46O222:0929-77-153.3(4)402(16)844.4(10)40838.5(10)0.3(3)1.3(6)7.8(14)406.0(5)
Methyl erucateMethyl cis-13-docosenoateC23H44O222:11120-34-9-1.1(5)400(9)867.1(7)849.3(6)0.2(1)1.1(2)9.1(1)4.8(1)
Ethyl Esters
Ethyl laurateEthyl dodecanoateC14H28O212:0106-33-2-1.8(4)276(3)858.1(6)839.2(7)132(8)1782(40)3.01(5)1.85(4)
Ethyl myristateEthyl tetradecanoateC16H32O214:0124-06-112.3(8)308(3)857.1(6)838.0(5)32(2)572(15)4.2(1)2.46(5)
Ethyl palmitateEthyl hexadecanoateC18H36O216:0628-97-724.2(4)334(7)857.2(7)838.4(4)5.4(3)157(30)5.7(1)3.20(7)
Ethyl palmitoleateEthyl cis-9-hexadecenoateC18H34O216:156219-10-4-36(1)4.5(10)2.8(10)
Ethyl stearateEthyl octadecanoateC20H40O218:0111-61-533.1(7)356(6)844.1(9)40837.2(8)2.2(3)65(6)667(3)683(2)7.5(1)4.05(10)
Ethyl oleateEthyl cis-9-octadecenoateC20H38O218:1111-62-6-21(2)357(9)865.9(8)847.6(8)2.5(2)78(25)5.8(1)3.31(8)
Ethyl linoleateEthyl cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoateC20H36O218:2544-35-4-55(5)351(10)877.0(15)861.1(15)1.9(15)64(30)4.8(1)2.9(1)

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