Section: 8 | Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Analytical Chemistry |
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The recommended form of citation is:
John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
If a specific table is cited, use the format: "Physical Constants of Organic Compounds," in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.


Abbreviations Used in Analytical Chemistry

A peak area; surface area of solid granular adsorbent; eddy diffusion term in the Van Deemter equation
AAA absolute activation analysis
AAD atomic absorption detector
AAS atomic absorption spectroscopy
AC alternating current, affinity chromatography
ACP alternating current plasma
ADXPS angular dependent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
AED atomic emission detector
AEM analytical electron microscope (microscopy)
AES Auger electron spectroscopy, atomic emission spectroscopy
AFID alkali flame ionization detector
AFM atomic force microscopy
AFS atomic force spectroscopy
AIS average of individual samples
AL action level
AM amplitude modulation
AMS accelerator mass spectrometry
AN area normalization
ANRF area normalization with response factors
AOTF acousto-optical tunable filter
AP analytical pyrolysis
APCI atmospheric pressure chemical ionization
APD azimuthal photoelectron diffraction
API atmospheric pressure ionization
APSTM analytical photon scanning tunneling microscope
APT attached proton test
ARAES angle resolved Auger electron spectroscopy
ARF absolute response factor
ARM atomic resolution microscopy
ARPES angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy
ARUPS angle resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
ASE accelerated solvent extraction
AsFIFFF (AF4) asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation
ATD above-threshold dissociation
ATI above-threshold ionization
ATR attenuated total reflection
BB band broadening
BE magnetic sector – electric sector tandem mass spectrometer (note: also called a MIKE spectrometer)
BEE magnetic sector – electric sector – electric sector mass spectrometer
BET Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (adsorption isotherm)
BIFL burst integrated fluorescence lifetime
BIS Bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy
BJH Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (method)
BL bioluminescence
BLRF bispectral luminescence radiance factor
BQQ magnetic sector-double quadrupole mass spectrometer BTOF
BTOF magnetic sector – time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer
CAD collision-activated dissociation
CAR continuous addition of reagent
CARS coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy
CCC counter-current chromatography
CCD charge-coupled device
CCT constant current topography
CD circular dichroism
CE capillary electrophoresis, counter electrode
CEC capillary electrokinetic chromatography, capillary electrochromatography
CED cohesive energy density
CFA continuous flow analysis
CF-FAB continuous flow-fast atom bombardment
CFM chemical force microscopy
CGE capillary gel electrophoresis
CHEMFET chemical-sensing field effect transistor
CI chemical ionization
CID collision-induced dissociation
CIEF capillary isoelectric focusing
CITP capillary isotachophoresis
CL chemiluminescence
CLLE continuous liquid-liquid extraction
CMA cylindrical mirror analyzer
COSY correlation spectroscopy
CPAA charged particle activation analysis
CP/MAS cross polarization/magic angle spinning
CRDS cavity ring-down spectroscopy
CRF chromatographic response function
CRM certified reference material
CS carbon strip (adsorbent)
CT cryogenic trapping
CTD charge transfer device
CV cyclic voltammetry
CV-ASS cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry
CVD chemical vapor deposition
CW continuous wave
CZE capillary zone electrophoresis
DA diode array
DAD diode array detector (UV-Vis)
DADI direct analysis of daughter ions
dB de Boar t-plot
DBE double bond equivalent
DC direct current
DCI desorption chemical ionization
DCP direct-current plasma
DEP differential electrolytic potentiometry
DEPT distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer
DETA dielectric thermal analysis
DIN direct injection nebulizer
DLI direct liquid introduction
DLS dynamic light scattering
DMA dynamic mechanical analysis
DME dropping mercury electrode
DNMR dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance
DPP differential pulse polarography
DRIFT diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform
DSC differential scanning calorimetry
DTA differential thermal analysis
DTC differential thermal calorimetry
EAES electron-excited Auger electron spectroscopy
EB electric sector – magnetic sector tandem mass spectrometer
EBE electric sector – magnetic sector-electric sector tandem mass spectrometer
EC electrochemical
ECD electron capture detector
ECMS electron capture mass spectrometry
ECNIMS electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry
EDL electrodeless discharge lamp
EDS energy-dispersive spectrometer
EDXRF energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence
EELS electron energy-loss spectroscopy
EFFF electric field flow fractionation
EG electrogravimetry
EGA evolved gas analysis
EIA enzyme-linked immunoassay
EI(I) electron impact (ionization)
EIMS electron impact mass spectrometry
ELCD electrolytic conductivity detector
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
ELSD evaporative light scattering detector
EM electron microscopy
EMIRS electrochemically modulated IR spectroscopy
EOF electro-osmotic flow
EPL enhanced photoactivated luminescence
EPMA electron-probe microanalysis
EPR electron paramagnetic resonance
EPXMA electron-probe x-ray microanalysis
EQL estimated quantitation limit
ERD elastic recoil detection
ESA electrostatic analyzer
ESCA electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
ESEM environmental scanning electron microscope
ESI electrospray ionization
ESP electrospray
ESR electron spin resonance
ET electrometric titration
ETA electrothermal analyzer, emanation thermal analysis
EXAFS extended x-ray absorption fine structure
FAA flame atomic absorption
FAAS flame atomic absorption spectroscopy
FABMS fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry
FAES flame atomic emission spectroscopy
FAFS flame atomic fluorescence spectroscopy
FAM field analytical method
FAS flame absorption spectroscopy
FD field desorption
FD/FI field desorption/field ionization
FES flame emission spectroscopy
FFEM freeze-fracture electron microscopy
FFF field-flow fractionation
FFFF flow field-flow fractionation
FFM friction force microscopy
FFS flame fluorescence spectroscopy
FFT fast Fourier transform
FGC fast gas chromatography
FI flow injection, field ionization
FIA flow injection analysis
FIB focused ion beam
FID flame ionization detector, free-induction decay
FIM field ion microscopy
FNAA fast neutron activation analysis
FOCS fiber optic chemical sensor
FPD flame photometric detector
FSOT fused silica open tubular (column)
FT Fourier transform
FT-ICR Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance
FT-IR Fourier transform infrared (often “FT/IR,” “FTIR,” “FT IR”)
FT-IRRAS FT-IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy
FT-MS Fourier transform mass spectrometry
FWHM full-width half-maximum
GC gas chromatography
GC-IR gas chromatography–infrared spectrometry
GCMS gas chromatography mass spectrometry
GDL glow discharge lamp
GDMS glow discharge mass spectrometry
GE gel electrophoresis, gradient elution
GEMBE gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis
GFAAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy
GLC gas-liquid chromatography
GPC gel permeation chromatography
GS Gram-Schmidt (algorithm)
GSC gas-solid chromatography
GSED gaseous secondary electron detector
HCL hollow cathode lamp
HCOT helically coiled open tubular (column)
HDC hydrodynamic chromatography
HETCOR heteronuclear correlation
HETP height equivalent of (a) theoretical plate(s)
HG hydride generation
HIC hydrophobic interaction chromatography
HMBC heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation
HPAC high-performance affinity chromatography
HPIAC high-performance immunoaffinity chromatography
HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography
HPTLC high-performance thin-layer chromatography
HRCGC high-resolution capillary gas chromatography
HRGC high-resolution gas(-liquid) chromatography
HS headspace
HSA hemispherical analyzer
HSC heteronuclear shift correlation
HSQC heteronuclear single quantum coherence
HTC high-temperature combustion
IA isocratic analysis
IAC immunoaffinity chromatography
IAES ion-excited Auger electron spectroscopy
IC ion chromatography
ICMS ion chromatography mass spectrometry
ICP inductively coupled plasma
ICP-OES ICP optical emission spectrometry
ICR ion cyclotron resonance
IDMS isotope dilution mass spectrometry
IEC ion-exchange chromatography
IEF isoelectric focusing
IF intermediate frequency
IGC inverse gas chromatography
IGF inert gas fusion
ILDA intensified linear diode array
IMAC immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography
INADEQUATE incredible natural abundance double-quantum transfer experiment
INEPT insensitive nuclei enhancement by polarization transfer
INAA instrumental neutron activation analysis
IP ion pairing
IPC ion-pair chromatography
IPG immobilized pH gradient
IPMA ion probe microanalysis
IR infrared (spectrophotometry)
IRN indicator radionuclide(s)
IRS internal reflection spectroscopy
ISCA ionization spectroscopy for chemical analysis
ISE ion selective electrode
ISP ion spray
ISS ion scattering spectrometry
LAMMS laser micro mass spectrometry
LARIMS laser atomization resonance ionization mass spectrometry
LARIS laser atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy
LASER light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
LBB Lambert-Beer-Bouguer law
LC liquid chromatography
LC-LS multidimensional liquid chromatography
LDMS laser desorption mass spectrometry
LDR linear dynamic range
LEAFS laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry
LED light-emitting diode
LEED low-energy electron diffraction
LEEM low-energy electron microscopy
LEI laser-enhanced ionization
LEISS low-energy ion scattering spectrometry
LESS laser-excited Shpol’skii spectroscopy
LFM lateral force microscopy
LIDAR light detection and ranging
LIFD laser-induced fluorescence detection
LIMS laboratory information management system
LLC liquid-liquid chromatography
LLD lower-limit detection
LLE liquid-liquid extraction
LNRI laser non-resonant ionization
LO local oscillator
LOC lab on a chip
LOD limit of detection
LPDA linear photodiode array
LPSIRS linear potential-sweep IR reflectance spectroscopy
LRI laser resonance ionization
LRMA laser Raman microanalysis
LSC liquid-solid chromatography
LSE liquid-solid extraction
LTP low-temperature phosphorescence
MAE microwave assisted extraction
MALDI matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization
MAS magic angle spinning
MCD magnetic circular dichroism
MCP microchannel plate
MDGC multidimensional gas chromatography
MDL method detection limit
MDM minimum detectable mass
MDQ minimum detectable quantity
MEIS medium-energy ion scattering
MEKC micellar electrokinetic chromatography
MFM magnetic force microscopy
MID multiple ion detection
MIKE mass analyzed ion kinetic energy mass spectrometry
MIP microwave-induced plasma, mercury intrusion porosimetry
MIRS multiple internal reflection spectroscopy
MLC micellar liquid chromatography
MLLSQ multiple linear least squares
MMF minimum mass fraction
MMLLE microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction
MPD microwave plasma detector
MPI multiphoton ionization
MRDL maximum residual disinfectant level (in water analysis)
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MS mass spectrometry
MS-MS tandem mass spectrometry
MSPD matric solid-phase dispersion
MSRTP micelle-stabilized room-temperature phosphorescence
MWD microwave (assisted) digestion
NAA neutron activation analysis
NCIMS negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry
NDP neutron depth profiling
NEXAFS near edge x-ray absorption fine structure
NHE normal-hydrogen electrode
NICI negative ion chemical ionization
NIR near-infrared, near-IR
NIRA near-infrared reflectance analysis
nm nanometer
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
NOE (nOe) nuclear Overhauser effect
NOESY nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy
NPD nitrogen-phosphorus detector, normal photoelectron diffraction
NPLC normal-phase liquid chromatography
ODMR optically detected magnetic resonance
ODS octadecylsilane
OES optical emission spectrometry, optical emission spectroscopy
OID optoelectronic imaging device
OMA optical multichannel analyzer
OPO optical parametric oscillator
OPTLC over-pressured thin-layer chromatography
ORD optical rotary dispersion
OTE optically transparent electrodes
PA proton affinity
PAA photon activation analysis
PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
PAS photoacoustic spectroscopy
PB particle beam
PC paper chromatography
PCA principal component analysis
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PCS photon correlation spectroscopy
PCSE partially coherent solvent evaporation
PD plasma desorption
PDA photodiode array
PDHID pulsed discharge helium ionization detector
PDMS plasma desorption mass spectrometry, polydimethyl siloxane
PED pulsed electrochemical detection, plasma emission detector, photoelectron diffraction
PES photoelectron spectroscopy
PET positron emission tomography
PFIA process flow injection analysis
PGC packed-column gas chromatography
pH negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration
PICI positive ion chemical ionization
PID photoionization detector
PIXE particle-induced x-ray emission
pK negative logarithm of an equilibrium constant
PLE pressurized liquid extraction
PLOT porous-layer open tubular
PLOT-cryo porous-layer open tubular (column) cryo-adsorption
PMT photomultiplier tube
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
ppt parts per thousand, parts per trillion
PSD position sensitive detector
PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene
PTR proton transfer reaction (in mass spectrometry)
PTV programmable temperature vaporizer
PVD pulsed voltammetric detection, physical vapor deposition
QCL quantum cascade laser
QCM quartz-crystal microbalance
QFAA quartz furnace atomic adsorption
QIT quadrupole ion trap
qNMR quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance
QQQ, QqQ, Q1qQ3 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer
QTH quartz tungsten halogen
QTOF tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer
RAA running annual average
RBS Rutherford backscattering spectrometry
REELS reflection electron energy loss spectrometry
RES reflection electron spectrometry
RF radio frequency
RHEED reflection high-energy electron diffraction
RIC reconstructed ion chromatogram
RI refractive index, retention index
RID refractive-index detector
RIMS resonance ionization mass spectrometry
RIS resonance ionization spectroscopy, range of individual samples
RM reference material
RNAA radiochemical neutron activation analysis
ROA Raman optical activity
ROESY rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy
RPLC reversed-phase liquid chromatography
RRDE rotating ring-disk electrode
RS Raman spectroscopy
RSF relative sensitivity factor
RTIL room-temperature ionic liquid
RTP room-temperature phosphorescence
S/N signal-to-noise ratio
SAE sonication-assisted extraction
SAM scanning Auger microscopy, self-assembly monolayers
SANS small-angle neutron scattering
SAW surface acoustic wave
SAXS small-angle x-ray scattering
SBSE stir bar sorptive extraction
SCE standard calomel electrode, saturated calomel electrode
SCF supercritical fluid
SCOT support-coated open tubular
SDD silicon drift detector
SdFFF sedimentation field flow fractionation
SEC size-exclusion chromatography
SEM scanning electron microscope
SERS surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
SFC supercritical-fluid chromatography
SFE supercritical-fluid extraction
SFFF sedimentation field flow fractionation
SF-MS sector field mass spectrometry
SFS synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy
SHE standard hydrogen electrode
SIA sequential injection analysis
SIDA stable isotope dilution assay
SIMS secondary ion mass spectrometry
SIRIS sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy
SMCL secondary maximum contaminant level (in water analysis)
SMDE static mercury drop electrode
SMSS spark source mass spectrometry
SNIFTIRS subtractively normalized interfacial FT-IR spectroscopy
SNMS sputtered neutral mass spectrometry
SPAES spin-polarized Auger electron spectroscopy
SPE solid-phase extraction
SPME solid-phase microextraction
SPR surface plasmon resonance
SRE stray radiant energy
SRM standard reference material
SSMS spark source mass spectrometry
SSRTF solid-surface room-temperature fluorescence
SSRTP solid-surface room-temperature phosphorescence
STEM scanning transmission electron microscope
STM scanning tunneling microscope
SVE solvent vapor exit
SWE supercritical-water extraction
TCA thermochemical analysis
TCD thermal-conductivity detector
TCT-GC-MS thermal cold trap gas chromatography mass spectrometry thermodilatometry
TD thermodilatometry
TDL tunable diode laser
TEA thermal energy analyzer
TED thermionic emission detector
TEELS transmission electron energy loss spectrometry
TEM transmission electron microscope
TET thermometric enthalpimetric titration
TFFF thermal field flow fractionation
TGA thermogravimetric analysis
TGA-IR thermogravimetric analysis – infrared
THEED transmission high-energy electron diffraction
ThFFF thermal field flow fractionation
TIC total ion current chromatogram, tentatively identified compound
TIMS thermal ionization mass spectrometry
TLC thin-layer chromatography
TLE thin-layer electrode
TLM thermal lens microscopy
TLV threshold limit value
TMA thermomechanical analysis
TMS tetramethylsilane
TOCSY total correlation spectroscopy
TOF time-of-flight
TOF-MS time-of-flight mass spectrometry
TSP thermospray
UHV ultrahigh vacuum
USE ultrasonic extraction
UV ultraviolet
UVPES, UPS ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
UV-VIS, UV-Vis ultraviolet-visible
VAR variable angle reflectance
Vis visible (radiation)
VOC volatile organic compound(s)
VOX volatile organic halogens
VUV vacuum ultraviolet
W Wein filter (used in mass spectrometry)
WCOT wall-coated open tubular
WDS wavelength dispersive spectrometer
WWCOT whisker-wall coated open tubular (column)
WWPLOT whisker-wall coated porous layer open tubular (column)
WWSCOT whisker-wall support-coated open tubular (column)
XAES x-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray adsorption edge spectrometry
XANES x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy
XPS x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
XRD x-ray diffraction
XRF x-ray fluorescence
XRFS x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy
XRS x-ray spectroscopy
ZAF Z (element number) absorption fluorescence

Symbols Used in Analytical Chemistry

α Auger yield, fine structure constant
a0 Bohr radius
A absorbance
A peak asymmetry factor
B magnetic field strength
[c] concentration of component c
dp particle diameter (HPLC stationary phase)
Dab diffusion coefficient
e electron elementary charge
ε extinction coefficient
E energy
E electrode potential
Eb binding energy
Eea electron affinity
Ei ionization energy
ν frequency
γ gyromagnetic ratio
n refractive index
h Planck constant
H enthalpy, plate height
I0 incident intensity
J coupling constant
k coverage factor
k' capacity factor
λ wavelength, thermal conductivity
m/z mass-to-elementary-charge ratio (mass spectrometry)
Qcrit Q value (outlier test)
q quadrupole parameter (mass spectrometry)
r correlation coefficient
R resolution
R Rydberg constant
ρ density
s standard deviation
s2 variance
δ chemical shift
δ* solubility parameter
τ true value of a measured quantity
τcrit Chauvanet’s criterion (outlier test)
t1/2 half-life
tM mobile-phase hold up
tR retention time
tR0 specific retention time
T transmittance
T1 spin-lattice relaxation time
T2 spin-spin relaxation time
carrier phase velocity
VM carrier hold-up volume
VR retention volume
VR0 specific retention volume
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