Section: 9 | Dipole Moments |
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The table 'TABLE 1. Dipole Moments of Gases and Liquids' has one or more different columns to those in the book version.
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John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
If a specific table is cited, use the format: "Physical Constants of Organic Compounds," in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.

DIPOLE MOMENTS

David R. Lide

These tables give selected values of the electric dipole moment μ for over 900 molecules. When available, values determined by microwave spectroscopy, molecular beam electric resonance, and other high-resolution spectroscopic techniques were selected. Otherwise, the values come from measurements of the dielectric constant in the gas phase or, if these do not exist, in the liquid phase.

Entries are listed alphabetically by compound name. This is followed by a line formula for simple structures or, for more complex compounds, the molecular formula in Hill order.

The dipole moment is given in debye units (D). The conversion factor to SI units is 1 D = 3.33564 × 10–30 C m.

When the accuracy of a dipole moment value is explicitly stated, e.g., 1.234(12), where digit(s) in parentheses represent the uncertainty in the last digit(s) of the value, the stated uncertainty generally indicates two standard deviations. When no uncertainty is given, the value may be assumed to be precise to a few units in the last decimal place. However, if more than three decimal places are given, the exact interpretation of the final digits may require analysis of the vibrational averaging. Other information on molecules that have been studied by spectroscopy, such as the components of the dipole moment in the molecular framework and the variation with vibrational state and isotopic species, may be found in the references.

Values measured in the gas phase that are questionable because of undetermined error sources are preceded by ≈. Values obtained by liquid-phase measurements, which sometimes have large errors because of association effects, are followed by liq.

Table 1 gives dipole moments of individual molecules in the gas or liquid phase. Column definitions for Table 1 are as follows.

Column heading Definition
Name Name of compound; compounds are listed alphabetically by name
Mol. form. Molecular formula of compound, in Hill order
μ Dipole moment, in units D
Ref. Reference number

Table 2 lists dipole moments of individual conformers of molecules that can exist in different structural configurations, related by internal rotation around single bonds. These conformers exist long enough to be measured by gas-phase microwave spectroscopic techniques but interconvert too rapidly to be isolated as bulk samples. The conformers are designated as gauche, trans, axial, etc. Because the notation of conformers is not well standardized, the references should be consulted for full details of the structure. Table 2 column definitions are as follows.

Column heading Definition
Name Name of compound; compounds are listed alphabetically by name
Mol. form. Molecular formula of compound, in Hill order
Conformer Conformer name; see text for discussion
μ Dipole moment, in units D
Ref. Reference number

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TABLE 1. Dipole Moments of Gases and Liquids



NameSynonymMol. form.Mol. form.CAS Reg. No.μ/DRef.
Continued on next page...
Acenaphthene1,2-DihydroacenaphthyleneC12H10C12H1083-32-9≈0.851
AcetaldehydeEthanalC2H4OCH3CHO75-07-02.750(6)3
AcetamideEthanamideC2H5NOCH3CONH260-35-53.68(3)5
Acetic acidEthanoic acidC2H4O2CH3COOH64-19-71.70(3)2
Acetic anhydrideAcetyl acetateC4H6O3C4H6O3108-24-7≈2.81
Acetone2-PropanoneC3H6O(CH3)2CO67-64-12.88(3)1
AcetonitrileMethyl cyanideC2H3NCH3CN75-05-83.925195
AcetophenoneMethyl phenyl ketoneC8H8OC6H5C=OCH398-86-23.02(6)1
Acetyl chlorideEthanoyl chlorideC2H3ClOCH3COCl75-36-52.72(14)1
Acetylene-carbon dioxide complexC2H2·CO2C2H2·CO20.161(1)22
Acetylene-carbon monoxide complexC2H2·COC2H2·CO0.311(1)32
Acetylene-carbon oxysulfide trimer complexC2H2·C3O3S3C2H2·(OCS)31.23(2)53
Acetylene-hydrogen cyanide complexC2H2·CHNC2H2·HCN3.29(3)32
Acetylene-sulfur dioxide complexC2H2O2SC2H2·SO21.683(5)93
Acetyl fluorideEthanoyl fluorideC2H3FOCH3COF557-99-32.96(3)1
AcrylonitrilePropenenitrileC3H3NCH2=CHCN107-13-13.92(7)5
Allenyl isocyanideIsocyanoalleneC4H3NCH2=C=CHNC41108-74-13.81(9)102
Allyl alcohol2-Propen-1-olC3H6OC3H6O107-18-61.60(8)1
Allylamine2-Propen-1-amineC3H7NCH2=CHCH2NH2107-11-9≈1.21

  • aanti-anti conformer.
  • bgauche conformer.
  • ccis conformer.
  • dSee Table 2 for individual conformers.
  • eFor 15N compound.
  • fC2 conformer, believed to be dominant form.
  • gAverage of gauche (2.205 D) and trans (2.231 D).
  • hchair conformer.


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