Section: 10 | Line Spectra Of The Elements |
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John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
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LINE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS

Joseph Reader and Charles H. Corliss

The original tables from which this table was derived were prepared under the auspices of the Committee on Line Spectra of the Elements of the National Academy of Sciences National Research Council. The table contains the outstanding spectral lines of neutral (I) and singly ionized (II) atoms of the elements from hydrogen through plutonium (Z = 1–94); selected strong lines from doubly ionized (III), triply ionized (IV), and quadruply ionized (V) atoms are also included. Listed are lines that appear in emission from the vacuum ultraviolet to the far infrared. These lines were selected from larger lists in such a way as to include the stronger observed lines in each spectral region. More extensive lists may be found in Ref. 1 and Ref. 3. This table in the Internet version of the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics contains 46,782 lines.

The data were compiled by the following contributors.

J. G. Conway — Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
C. H. Corliss — National Bureau of Standards
R. D. Cowan — Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
C. R. Cowley — University of Michigan
Henry M. and Hannah Crosswhite — Argonne National Laboratory
S. P. Davis — University of California, Berkeley
V. Kaufman — National Bureau of Standards
R. L. Kelly — Naval Postgraduate School
J. F. Kielkopf — University of Louisville
W. C. Martin — National Bureau of Standards
T. K. McCubbin — Pennsylvania State University
L. J. Radziemski — Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
J. Reader — National Bureau of Standards
C. J. Sansonetti — National Bureau of Standards
G. V. Shalimoff — Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
R. W. Stanley — Purdue University
J. O. Stoner, Jr. — University of Arizona
H. H. Stroke — New York University
D. R. Wood — Wright State University
E. F. Worden — Lawrence Livermore Laboratory
J. J. Wynne — International Business Machines Corporation
R. Zalubas — National Bureau of Standards

All wavelengths are given in Ångström units (10-10 m). Below 2000 Å the wavelengths are in vacuum (except for the Cu II line at 1999.698 Å, which is in air); above 2000 Å the wavelengths are in air. Wavelengths given to three decimal places have an uncertainty of less than 0.001 Å and are therefore suitable for calibration purposes. In the air region, the elements used most commonly for calibration are Ne, Ar, Kr, Fe, Th, and Hg; in the vacuum region, the most common are C, N, O, Si, Cu.

All data refer to natural isotopic abundance of the elements except that Kr I and Kr II lines below 11,000 Å given to three decimal places are for 86Kr. A group of 198Hg lines for which the wavelengths are known to high accuracy is separated from the normal mercury lines. These lines are frequently used for calibration.

A large number of the lines for neutral and singly ionized atoms were extracted from the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Tables of Spectral Line Intensities (Ref. 2). The intensities of these lines represent quantitative estimates of relative line strengths that take into account varying detection sensitivity at different wavelengths. They are on a linear scale. For nearly all of the other lines the intensities represent qualitative estimates of the relative strengths of lines not greatly separated in wavelength. Because different observers frequently use different scales for their intensity estimates, these intensities are useful only as a rough indication of the appearance of a spectrum. In some cases the intensity scale is not intended to be linear. In the first and second spectra the intensities of the lines of the singly ionized atom (II) relative to those of the neutral atom (I) should be used with caution, inasmuch as the concentration of ions in a light source depends greatly on the excitation conditions.

The table is arranged alphabetically by element name (not symbol); for each element the lines are listed by wavelength. References to the sources of data for each element are given at the end of the table.

  1. Reader, J., Corliss, C. H., Wiese, W. L., and Martin, G. A., Tables of Line Spectra of the Elements, Part 1. Wavelengths and Intensities, Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Sys.- Nat. Bur. Standards (U.S.), No. 68, 1980.
  2. Meggers, W. F., Corliss, C. H., and Scribner, B. F., Tables of Spectral Line Intensities, Part 1. Arranged by Elements, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monograph 145, 1975. [https://doi.org/10.6028/NBS.MONO.145p1]
  3. Kramida, A., Ralchenko, Yu., Reader, J. and NIST ASD Team (2013). NIST Atomic Spectra Database (version 5.1). Available: http://physics.nist.gov/asd,  National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

Sources of Data for Each Element

Numbers following the element name refer to the papers in the reference list.

Actinium: 193
Aluminum: 6,8,81,89,127,144,146,227,228,282
Americium: 92
Antimony: 164,167,194,386,406
Argon: 190,203,204,219,367,368,372,373,374,375,414,421
Arsenic: 163,168,197,244,280
Astatine: 188
Barium: 1,78,111,252,259,277,279
Berkelium: 53,339
Beryllium: 15,44,73,102,115,134,135,171,175,198,335
Bismuth: 1,357,358,359,360,361
Boron: 66,69,74,94,104,171,221,222
Bromine: 42,122,124,139,142,240,243,246,248,249,250,316
Cadmium: 44,285,296,353,399
Calcium: 16,25,70,150,270
Californium: 52,331
Carbon: 22,66,211
Cerium: 1,136,166,261,305
Cesium: 78,82,154,155,200,201,259,263,325
Chlorine: 11,28,30,31,85,233,238,239
Chromium: 1,379,380,412
Cobalt: 1,100,125,159,236,276,291
Copper: 199,273,290,295,324
Curium: 51,332
Dysprosium: 1
Einsteinium: 333
Erbium: 1,301
Europium: 1,312
Fluorine: 68,169,224,225,226
Francium: 408
Gadolinium: 1,46,137,151,152
Gallium: 2,19,62,132,140,141,143,195,281
Germanium: 5,119,293,340,341,342
Gold: 38,72,234,393,395
Hafnium: 1,369,404,410,425
Helium: 16,94,173,183,317
Holmium: 1
Hydrogen: 214
Indium: 1,132,348,349,350,351,352,353,435,436
Iodine: 20,21,58,84,124,153,161,176,184
Iridium: 1
Iron: 56,63,71,101,105,138,174,278,381,382
Krypton: 61,121,123,147,208,232,366,390,409,417,421
Lanthanum: 1,78,79,220,309
Lead: 54,64,106,256,274,297,283,329,330
Lithium: 3,15,17,18,37,44,112,284,321,335
Lutetium: 1,148,310,401
Magnesium: 4,7,49,83,103,128,129,177,217,269,315,335
Manganese: 1,126,385,405,433
Mercury (198): 43,50,69,145,229,242
Mercury (Natural): 34,45,90,117,133,189,235,304,327,328,343
Molybdenum: 1,383,420
Neodymium: 1
Neon: 56,58,69,118,150,230,364,365,371,388,389,400,402,413,430
Neptunium: 93
Nickel: 1,294,415,416,422
Niobium: 1,392,407,431
Nitrogen: 66,107,108,212,213,318
Osmium: 1
Oxygen: 23,24,36,66,69,209,210,215
Palladium: 1,287,424
Phosphorus: 179,180,182,336
Platinum: 1,288
Plutonium: 91
Polonium: 47,48
Potassium: 32,59,60,75,76,86,150,160,172,268,314,322
Praseodymium: 1,149,306,308,337,338
Promethium: 196,260
Protactinium: 96
Radium: 253,254
Radon: 251
Rhenium: 1
Rhodium: 1,396
Rubidium: 12,109,130,241,257,258,262,264
Ruthenium: 1,423
Samarium: 1
Scandium: 1,88,150,298,323
Selenium: 9,80,181,216,245,247,275
Silicon: 87,170,237,292,319,320
Silver: 13,99,255,286,289,363,387,398
Sodium: 178,205,206,207,268,299,334
Strontium: 1,109,110,218,231,265,279,313
Sulfur: 29,144,202,209,210,266
Tantalum: 1,411,426
Technetium: 35
Tellurium: 1,344,345,346,347
Terbium: 1,302
Thallium: 1,195,348,354,355,356
Thorium: 1,97,98,156,157,165,434
Thulium: 1,307
Tin: 187,191,399,423
Titanium: 1,378,427,428
Tungsten: 1
Uranium: 1,303
Vanadium: 1,394,397,432
Xenon: 33,116,118,120,232,384,391,429
Ytterbium: 1,40,192,311
Yttrium: 1,77,265,419
Zinc: 39,55,113,131,185,186,370,376,377
Zirconium: 1,362,403,418

References

TABLE 1. Line Spectra of the Elements.



NameIntensityWavelength/λStage
Continued on next page...
Actinium20 h2062.00IV
Actinium8 h2100.00II
Actinium30 h2502.12IV
Actinium100 h2558.08IV
Actinium1000 h2626.44III
Actinium50 h2682.90III
Actinium202712.50II
Actinium102726.23II
Actinium10 h2760.18II
Actinium10 h2781.56II
Actinium5 h2790.83IV
Actinium50 h2793.90IV
Actinium202797.59II
Actinium202806.76II
Actinium82833.47II
Actinium150 h2847.16II
Actinium82895.20II
Actinium302896.82II
Actinium302923.02II


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