Section: 11 | Table of the Isotopes |
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TABLE OF THE ISOTOPES

Norman E. Holden

This table presents an evaluated set of values for the experimental quantities that characterize the decay of radioactive nuclides. A list of the major references used in this evaluation is given below. When uncertainties are not listed, they are assumed to be five or less in the last digit quoted. If the uncertainty in the value exceeds five in the last digit, the value is preceded by an approximate sign.

For quasi-stable nuclides, the measured width, Γ, of the resonance is given. To estimate the approximate half-life, the Heisenberg relationship may be used: the half-life = 4.56 × 10-22 seconds / Γ (MeV). The effective literature cutoff date for data in this edition of the table is October 2016.

Table Layout



Column headingDefinition
Elem. or Isot.For elements, the atomic number and chemical symbol are listed. For nuclides, the mass number and chemical symbol are listed. Isomers are indicated by the addition of m, m1, or m2.
Natural abundanceThe abundance of an isotope in normal terrestrial samples of an element, listed in atom percent.
Atomic mass or weightAtomic mass relative to 12C = 12. Atomic weight of elements is given on the same scale.
Half-life/Resonance widthHalf-life in decimal notation. µs = microseconds; ms = milliseconds; s = seconds; m = minutes; h = hours; d = days; and a = years. For quasi-stable nuclides, the measured width at half-maximum of the energy resonance is given.
Decay mode/EnergyDecay modes are α = alpha particle emission; β = negative beta emission; β+ = positron emission; ec = orbital electron capture; IT = isomeric transition from upper to lower isomeric state; n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; sf = spontaneous fission; ββ, ECEC, 2p, 2n, 3n = double beta, double EC, two proton and multiple neutron decay. Total disintegration energy in MeV units.
Particle energy/IntensityEnd point energies of beta transitions and discrete energies of alpha particles, neutrons, and protons are given in MeV units and their intensities in percent.
SpinNuclear spin or angular momentum of the nuclides in units of h/2π; parity is positive or negative.
Nuclear magnetic mom.Magnetic dipole moments in nuclear magneton units. An absolute value is indicated in the absence of a positive or a negative sign.
Elect. quadr. mom.Electric quadrupole moments in barn units (10-24 cm2). An absolute value is indicated in the absence of a positive or a negative sign.
γ-Energy/IntensityGamma ray energies are given in MeV units and intensities in percent. Annihilation radiation (ann.rad.) refers to the 511.006 keV photons emitted in the annihilation of positrons in matter.


General Nuclear Data References

The following references represent the major sources of the nuclear data presented, along with subsequent published journal articles and reports:

  1. G. Audi, F.G. Kondev, M. Wang, B. Pfeiffer, X. Sun, J. Blachot, M. MacCormick,  The NUBASE2012 Evaluation of Nuclear Properties, Chinese Physics C – High Energy and Nuclear Physics 36, 1157 (2012). [https://doi.org/10.1088/1674-1137/36/12/001]
  2. M. Wang, G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, F.G. Kondev, M. MacCormick, X. Xu, B. Pfeiffer, The AME2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation (II., Tables, graphs and references), Chinese Physics C – High Energy and Nuclear Physics 36, 1603 (2012). [https://doi.org/10.1088/1674-1137/36/12/003]
  3. J. Meija, T. B. Coplen, M. Berglund, W. A. Brand, P. De Bievre, M. Gröning, N. E. Holden, J. Irrgeher, R. D. Loss, T. Walczyk, T. Prohaska, Atomic Weights of the Elements - 2013, Pure & Applied Chemistry 88, 265 (2016). [https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2015-0305]
  4. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Standard Atomic Weight of Ytterbium Revised (press release, 24 August 2015) https://iupac.org/standard-atomic-weight-of-ytterbium-revised/ (accessed Dec 2016).
  5. J. Meija, T. B. Coplen, M. Berglund, W. A. Brand, P. De Bievre, M. Gröning, N. E. Holden, J. Irrgeher, R. D. Loss, T. Walczyk, T. Prohaska, Isotopic Composition of the Elements 2013  (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure & Applied Chemistry 88, 293 (2016). [https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2015-0503]
  6. E.M. Baum, H.D. Knox, T.R. Miller, Chart of the Nuclides, 17th Edition, Knolls Atomic Power Lab (2009).
  7. N.E. Holden, Total and Spontaneous Fission Half-Lives for Uranium, Plutonium, Americium and Curium Nuclides, Pure & Applied Chemistry 61, 1483 (1989). [https://doi.org/10.1351/pac198961081483]
  8. N.E. Holden, Half-lives of Selected Nuclides, Pure & Applied Chemistry 62, 941 (1990). [https://doi.org/10.1351/pac199062050941]
  9. E. Brown, R. Firestone, Radioactivity Handbook, Wiley Interscience Press (1986).
  10. J.K. Tuli, Nuclear Wallet Cards, Brookhaven National Laboratory (October 2011).
  11. N.E. Holden, D.C. Hoffman,Spontaneous Fission Half-Lives for Ground State Nuclides, Pure & Applied Chemistry 72, 1525 (2000). [https://doi.org/10.1351/pac200072081525]
  12. N.J. Stone, Table of Nuclear Magnetic Dipole and Electrical Quadrupole Moments, Atomic Data Nuclear Data Tables 90, 75 (2005). [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001]
  13. N. J. Stone, Table of Nuclear Electric Quadrupole Moments, Atomic Data Nuclear Data Tables, 111-112, 1 (2016). [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adt.2015.12.002]
  14. I. M. Villa, P. De Biѐvre, N. E. Holden, P. R. Renne, Recommendation on the half-life of 87Rb, Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 164, 382 (2015). [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2015.05.025]
  15. I. M. Villa, M. L. Bonardi, P. De Biѐvre, N. E. Holden, P. R Renne, IUPAC-IUGS status report on the half-lives of 238U, 235U and 234U, Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 172, 387 (2016). [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2015.10.011]
  16. A. K. Jain, B. Maheshwari, S. Garg, M. Patial, B. Singh, Atlas of Nuclear Isomers, Nuclear Data Sheets 128, 1 (2015). [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nds.2015.08.001]

This research was carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. The author is at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, and can be contacted at [email protected].

Table of the Isotopes



ElementElem. or Isot.Natural abundance (Atom %)Atomic mass or weightHalf-life/Resonance width (MeV)Decay mode/Energy (MeV)Particle energy/Intensity (MeV/%)Spin (h/2π)Nuclear magnetic mom. (nm)Elect. quadr. mom. (b)γ-Energy/Intensity (MeV/%)
Continued on next page...
Neutronon1.008664916610.5 sβ- /0.782350.782/100.1/2+-1.913043
Neutrononβ-, γ/ 0.0031
Hydrogen1H1.00784-1.00811
Hydrogen1H99.972 - 99.9991.007825032>2.8 ×1023 a1/2++2.7928473
Hydrogen2H0.001-0.0282.0141017781++0.8574382+2.86 mb
Hydrogen3H3.01604928212.31 aβ-/0.018590.01860/100.1/2++2.9789624
Hydrogen4H4.026Γ = 1.2 n//1002-
Hydrogen5H5.035Γ < 0.5n//100 (1/2+)
Hydrogen6H6.045Γ ~ 6.n/(2-)
Hydrogen7H7.05Γ ~ 0.1
Helium2He4.002602(2)
Helium3He0.0002(2)3.0160293231/2+-2.127750
Helium4He99.9998(2)4.00260325410+
Helium5He5.0121Γ = 0.60(2)n, α3/2-
Helium6He6.01888590.8069 sβ-/3.5083.510/100.0+
Helium6Heβ, d0.35/0.00017
Helium7He7.02799Γ ~ 0.19n(3/2)-
Helium8He8.0339340.119 sβ-/10.65/84.0+0.9807/84.
Helium8Heβ- n//16.0.4776/5.


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