Section: 11 | Cosmic Radiation |
Help Manual

Page of 1
Type a page number and hit Enter.
  Back to Search Results
Type a page number and hit Enter.
Additional Information
Summary of table differences
No records found.
How to Cite this Reference
The recommended form of citation is:
John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
If a specific table is cited, use the format: "Physical Constants of Organic Compounds," in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.


A. G. Gregory and R. W. Clay

The Nature of Cosmic Rays

Primary cosmic radiation, in the form of high-energy nuclear particles, electrons and photons from outside the solar system and from the Sun, continually bombards our atmosphere. Secondary radiation, resulting from the interaction of the primary cosmic rays with atmospheric gas, is present at sea level and throughout the atmosphere.

Secondary radiation is collimated by absorption and scattering in the atmosphere and consists of a number of components associated with different particle species. High-energy primary particles can produce large numbers of secondary particles forming an extensive air shower. Thus, a number of particles may then be detected simultaneously at sea level.

Primary particle energies accessible in the vicinity of the Earth range from ~108 eV to ~1020 eV. At the lower energies, the limit is determined by the inability of charged particles to traverse the heliosphere to us through the outward-moving solar wind. The upper energy limit is set by the practicality of building detectors to record particles with the extremely low fluxes found at those energies (O. C. Allkofer, 1975a; J. G. Wilson, 1976).

Primary Cosmic Rays

Primary Particle Energy Spectrum

Figure 1 shows the spectrum of primary particle energies. This includes all particle species. In differential form it is roughly a power law of intensity versus energy with an index of ~ –3. There appears to be a knee (a steepening) at a little above 1015 eV and an ankle (a flattening) above ~1018 eV. Figure 2 emphasizes the features in the spectrum at the highest energies through multiplying the flux with a strongly rising power law of energy. This figure should be used with caution as errors for the two axes are not now independent.

Data on the high-energy cosmic ray spectrum are uncertain largely because of limited event statistics due to the very low flux which might best be measured in particles per square kilometer per century. The highest energy event recorded to 1995 had an energy of 3 × 1020 eV (D. J. Bird et al., 1993).

It is expected that the highest energy cosmic rays will interact with the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background through photoproduction or photodisintegration. These interactions will appreciably reduce the observed flux of cosmic rays with energies above 5 × 1019 eV if they travel further than ~150 million light-years. This process is known as the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz’min (GZK) cutoff (P. Sokolsky, 1989).

At energies below ~1013 eV, solar system magnetic fields and plasma can modulate the primary component and Figure 3 shows the extent of this modulation between solar maximum and minimum (E. Juliusson, 1975; J. Linsley, 1981).

Primary Particle Energy Density

If the above spectrum is corrected for solar effects, the energy density above a particle energy of 109 eV outside the solar system is found to be ~5 × 10eV m–3. As the threshold energy is increased, the energy density decreases rapidly, being 2 × 104 eV m–3 above 1012 eV and 102 eV m–3 above 1015 eV. The energy density at lower energies outside the heliosphere is unknown but may be substantially greater if the particle rest mass energy is included together with the kinetic energy (A. W. Wolfendale, 1979).


Primary Particle Isotropy

This is measured as an anisotropy (ImaxImin)/(Imax + Imin) × 100%, where I, the intensity (m–2s–1sr –1), is usually measured with an angular resolution of a few degrees.

The measured anisotropy is small and energy dependent. It is roughly constant in amplitude at between 0.05 and 0.1% (with a phase of 0 to 6 hours in right ascension) for energies between 1011 eV and 1014 eV and appears to increase at higher energies roughly as 0.4 × (Energy(eV)/1016)0.5 % up to ~1018 eV. The latter rise may well be an artifact of the progressively more limited statistics as the flux drops rapidly with energy. It appears possible that a real anisotropy has been observed at the highest energies (above a few times 1019 eV) with a directional preference for the supergalactic plane (this plane reflects the directions of galaxies within about 100 million light-years) (A. W. Wolfendale, 1979; R. W. Clay, 1987; T. Stanev et al., 1995).


Primary Particle Composition

The composition of low-energy cosmic rays is close to universal nuclear abundances except where propagation effects are present. For example, Li, Be, and B which are spallation products, are overabundant by about six orders of magnitude.

Composition at 1011 eV per Nucleus

% Composition50251127440.1

Measurements at higher energies indicate that there is an increase in the relative abundances of nuclei with charges greater than 6 at energies above 50 TeV/nucleus (K. Asakimori et al., 1993) (1 TeV = 1012 eV).

Cosmic ray composition at low energies is often quoted at a fixed energy per nucleon. When presented in this way, protons constitute roughly 90% of the flux, helium nuclei about 10%, and the remainder sum to a total of about 1%.

Certain radioactive isotopic ratios show lifetime effects. The ratio of Be10/B9 abundances is used to measure an “age” of cosmic rays since Be10 is unstable with a half-life of about 1.6 × 106 years. A ratio of 0.6 is expected in the absence of Be10 decay and a ratio of about 0.2 is found experimentally (E. Juliusson, 1975; P. Meyer, 1981).

At higher energies, composition determinations are indirect and are rather contradictory and controversial. Experiments aim to differentiate between broad composition models. The measurement technique is based on studies of cosmic ray shower development. A rather direct technique for such studies is to use fluorescence observations of the shower development to determine the atmospheric depth of maximum development of the shower. Such observations suggest a heavy composition (large atomic number) at energies ~1017 eV which changes with increasing energy to a light composition (perhaps protonic) above ~1019 eV (T. K. Gaisser et al., 1993).

figure 1 described below

FIGURE 1. The energy spectrum of cosmic ray particles. This spectrum is of a differential form and can be converted to an integral spectrum by integration over all energies above a required threshold (E). Insofar as the spectrum approximates a power law of index –3, a simple conversion to the integral at an energy E/1.8 is obtained by multiplying the differential flux by the energy and dividing by 0.62.

figure 2 described below

FIGURE 2. Energy spectrum at the highest energies. This spectrum (after Yoshida et al., 1995) has the differential spectrum multiplied by energy cubed. It is from a compilation of a number of measurements and indicates the good general agreement at the lower energies and a spread due to inadequate statistics at the highest energies.

figure 3 described below

FIGURE 3. Energy spectrum of particles at lower energies. (a) Solar minimum proton energy spectrum. (b) Solar maximum proton energy spectrum. (c) Gamma ray energy spectrum. (d) Local interstellar electron spectrum.

Primary Electrons

Primary electrons constitute about 1% of the cosmic ray beam. The positron to negative electron ratio is about 10% (J. M. Clem et al., 1995).

Antimatter in the Primary Beam

The ratio of antiprotons to protons in the primary cosmic ray beam (at about 400 MeV) is about 10–5. At about 10 GeV the ratio is about 10–3. At the highest measured energies (10 TeV), the upper limit to the ratio is about 20% (M. Amenomori et al., 1995; S. Orito et al., 1995).

Primary Gamma Rays

The flux of primary gamma rays is low at high energies. At 1 GeV the ratio of gamma rays to protons is about 10–6. The arrival directions of these gamma rays are strongly concentrated in the plane of the Milky Way although there is a diffuse, near isotropic background flux and some point sources have been detected.

Since the absorption cross section for gamma rays above 100 MeV is approximately 20 mbarn/electron, less than 10% of gamma rays reach mountain altitudes (A. W. Wolfendale, 1979; P. F. Michelson, 1994).

Sea-Level Cosmic Radiation

The sea-level cosmic ray dose is 300 millirad⋅yr–1 and the sea-level ionization is 2.2 × 106 ion pairs m–3s–1. The sea-level flux has a soft component, which can be absorbed in about 100 mm of lead (about 100 g⋅cm–2 of absorber) and a more penetrating (largely muon) hard component. The sea-level radiation is largely produced in the atmosphere and is a secondary component from interactions of the primary particles. The steep primary energy spectrum means that most secondaries at sea level are from rather low-energy primaries. Thus, the secondary flux is dependent on the solar cycle and the geomagnetic latitude of the observer.

Absolute Flux of the Hard Component

Flux of the Soft Component

In free air, the soft component comprises about one-third of the total cosmic ray flux.

Latitude Effect

The geomagnetic field influences the trajectories of lower-energy cosmic rays approaching the Earth. As a result, the background flux is reduced by about 7% at the geomagnetic equator. The effect decreases toward the poles and is negligible at latitudes above about 40°.

Flux of Protons

The proton component is strongly attenuated by the atmosphere with an attenuation length (reduction by a factor of e) of about 120 g⋅cm–2, constituting about 1% of the total vertical sea-level flux.


The soft component is absorbed in about 100 g⋅cm–2 of matter. The hard component is absorbed much more slowly:

Altitude Dependence

The cosmic ray background in the atmosphere has a maximum intensity of about 15 times that at sea level at a depth of about 150 g⋅cm–2 (15 km altitude). At maximum intensity, the soft and hard components contribute roughly equally but the hard component is then attenuated more slowly (S. Hayakawa, 1969).

Cosmic Ray Showers

High-energy cosmic rays produce particle cascades in the atmosphere which can be detected at sea level provided that their energy exceeds about 100 GeV (such low-energy cascades may be detected by using the most sensitive atmospheric Cerenkov detectors). The primary particle progressively loses energy which is transferred through the production of successive generations of secondary particles to a cascade of hadrons, an electromagnetic shower component (both positively and negatively charged electrons and gamma rays) and muons. The secondary particles are relativistic and all travel effectively at the speed of light. As a result, they reach sea level at approximately the same time but, due to Coulomb scattering (for the electrons) and production angles (for the pions producing the muons), are spread laterally into a disk-like shower front with a characteristic lateral width of several tens of meters and thickness (near the central shower core) of 2 to 3 m. The number of particles at sea level is roughly proportional to the primary particle energy:

Number of particles at sea level ~10–10 × energy (eV).

At altitudes below a few kilometers, the number of particles in a shower attenuates with an attenuation length of about 200 g⋅cm–2, i.e.,

particle number = original number × exp(–(depth increase)/200)

The above applies to an individual shower. The rate of observation of showers of a given size (particle number at the detector) at different depths of absorber attenuates with an absorption length of about 100 g⋅cm–2 (J. G. Wilson, 1976).


Atmospheric Background Light from Cosmic Rays

Cosmic ray particles produce Cerenkov light in the atmosphere and produce fluorescent light through the excitation of atmospheric molecules.


Cerenkov Light

High-energy charged particles will cause the emission of Cerenkov light in air if their energies are above about 30 MeV (electrons). This threshold is pressure (and hence altitude) dependent. A typical Cerenkov light pulse (at sea level, 100 m from the central shower core) has a time spread of a few nanoseconds. Over this time, the photon flux between 430 and 530 nm would be ~1014 m–2s–1 for a primary particle energy of 1016 eV. For comparison, the night sky background flux is ~6 × 1011 photons m–2s–1sr–1 in the same wavelength band (J. V. Jelley, 1967).


Fluorescence Light

Cosmic ray particles in the atmosphere excite atmospheric molecules which then emit fluorescence light. This is weak compared to the highly collimated Cerenkov component when viewed in the direction of the incident cosmic ray particle but is emitted isotropically. Typical pulse widths are longer than 50 ns and may be up to several microseconds for the total pulse from distant large showers (R. M. Baltrusaitis et al., 1985).


Effects of Cosmic Rays


Cerenkov Effects in Transparent Media

Background cosmic ray particles will produce Cerenkov light in transparent material with a photon yield between wavelengths λ1 and λ2

(2π/137)sin2(θc)λ1λ2dλ/λ2photons(unit length)1

where θc (the Cerenkov angle) = cos–1 (1/refractive index).

This background light is known to affect light detectors, e.g., photomultipliers, and can be a major source of background noise (R. W. Clay and A. G. Gregory, 1977).


Effects on Electronic Components

If background cosmic ray particles pass through electronic components, they may deposit sufficient energy to affect the state of, e.g., a transistor flip-flop. This effect may be significant where reliability is of great importance or the background flux is high. For instance, it has been estimated that, in communication satellite operation, an error rate of about 2 × 10–3 per transistor per year may be found. Permanent damage may also result. A significant error rate may be found even at sea level in large electronic memories. This error rate is dependent on the sensitivity of the component devices to the deposition of electrons in their sensitive volumes (J. F. Ziegler, 1981).


Biophysical Significance

When cosmic rays interact with living tissue, they produce radiation damage. The amount of the damage depends on the total dose of radiation. At sea level, this dose is small compared with doses from other sources, but both the quantity and quality of the radiation change rapidly with altitude. Approximate dose rates under various conditions are:

Astronauts would be subject to radiation from galactic (0.05 rads per day) and solar (a few hundred rads per solar flare) cosmic rays as well as large fluxes of low-energy radiation when passing through the Van Allen belts (about 0.3 rads per traverse).

Both astronauts and SST travelers would be subject to a small flux of low-energy heavy nuclei stopping in the body. Such particles are capable of destroying cell nuclei and could be particularly harmful in the early stages of the development of an embryo. The rates of heavy nuclei stopping in tissue in supersonic transports and spacecraft are approximately as follows:


Carbon Dating

Radiocarbon is produced in the atmosphere due to the action of cosmic ray slow neutrons. Solar cycle modulation of the very low-energy cosmic rays causes an anticorrelation of the atmospheric 14C activity with sunspot number with a mean amplitude of about 0.5%. In the long term, modulation of cosmic rays by a varying magnetic field may be important (A. A. Burchuladze et al., 1979).


Practical Uses of Cosmic Rays

There are few direct practical uses of cosmic rays. Their attenuation in water and snow have, however, enabled automatic monitors of water and snow depth to be constructed. A search for hidden cavities in pyramids has been carried out using a muon “telescope.”


Other Effects

Stellar x-rays have been observed to affect the transmission times of radio signals between distant stations by altering the depth of the ionospheric reflecting layer. It has also been suggested that variations in ionization of the atmosphere due to solar modulation may have observable effects on climatic conditions.


  1. O.C. Allkofer (1975a) Introduction to Cosmic Radiation, Verlag Karl Thiemig, Munchen, Germany.
  2. O.O. Allkofer (1975b) J. Phys. G: Nucl. Phys., 1, L51. []
  3. O.C. Allkofer and W. Heinrich (1974) Health Phys., 27, 543. []
  4. M. Amenomori et al. (1995) Proc. 24th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. Rome, 3, 85. Universita La Sapienza, Roma.
  5. K. Asakimori et al. (1993) Proc. 23rd Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. Calgary, 2, 25, University of Calgary, Canada.
  6. R.M. Baltrusaitis et al. (1985) Nucl. Inst. Meth., A420, 410.
  7. D.J. Bird et al. (1993) Phys. Rev. Lett., 71, 3401.
  8. A.A. Burchuladze, S.V. Pagava, P. Povinec, G. I. Togonidze, S. Usacev (1979) Proc. 16th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. Kyoto, 3, 201, Univ. of Tokyo, Japan.
  9. R.W. Clay (1987) Aust. J. Phys., 40, 423. []
  10. R.W. Clay and A.G. Gregory (1977) J. Phys. A: Math. Gen., 10, 135. []
  11. J.M. Clem et al. (1995) Proc. 24th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. Rome, 3, 5, Universita La Sapienza, Roma.
  12. T.K. Gaisser et al. (1993) Phys. Rev. D, 47, 1919.
  13. K. Greisen (1943) Phys. Rev., 63, 323. []
  14. S. Hayakawa (1969) Cosmic Ray Physics, Wiley-Interscience, New York.
  15. J.V. Jelley (1967) Prog. in Elementary Particle and Cosmic Ray Physics, 9, 41.
  16. E. Juliusson (1975) Proc. 14th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. Munich, 8, 2689, Max Planck Institute fur Extraterrestriche Physik, Munchen, Germany.
  17. J. Linsley (1981) Origin of Cosmic Rays, I.A.U. Symposium 94, 53, D. Reidel Publishing Co. Dordrecht, Holland. []
  18. P. Meyer (1981) Origin of Cosmic Rays, I.A.U. Symposium 94, 7, D. Reidel Publishing Co. Dordrecht, Holland. []
  19. P.F. Michelson (1994) in Towards a Major Atmospheric Cerenkov Detector III, 257, Ed. T. Kifune, Universal Academy Press Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
  20. P. Sokolsky (1989) Introduction to Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Ray Physics, Addison Wesley Publishing Company. []
  21. T. Stanev et al. (1995) Phys. Rev. Lett., 75, 3056. []
  22. S. Orito et al. (1995) Proc. 24th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. Rome, 3, 76. Universita La Sapienza, Roma.
  23. J.G. Wilson (1976) Cosmic Rays, Wykeham Pub. (London) Lt., U.K.
  24. A.W. Wolfendale (1979) Pramana, 12, 631. []
  25. S. Yoshida et al. (1995) Astroparticle Phys., 3, 105.
  26. J.F. Ziegler, (1981) IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, ED-28, 560. []

Page 1 of 1

Entry Display
This is where the entry will be displayed

Log In - Individual User
You are not within the network of a subscribing institution.
Please sign in with an Individual User account to continue.
Note that Workspace accounts are not valid.

Confirm Log Out
Are you sure?
Log In to Your Workspace
Your personal workspace allows you to save and access your searches and bookmarks.
Remember Me
This will save a cookie on your browser

If you do not have a workspace Log In click here to create one.
Forgotten your workspace password? Click here for an e-mail reminder.
Log Out From Your Workspace
Are you sure?
Create your personal workspace
First Name (Given)
Last Name (Family)
Email address
Confirm Password

Incorrect login details
You have entered your Workspace sign in credentials instead of Individual User sign in credentials.
You must be authenticated within your organisation's network IP range in order to access your Workspace account.
Click the help icon for more information on the differences between these two accounts.
Incorrect login details
You have entered your Individual User account sign in credentials instead of Workspace credentials.
While using this network, a personal workspace account can be created to save your bookmarks and search preferences for later use.
Click the help icon for more information on the differences between Individual User accounts and Workspace accounts.
My Account

Change Your Workspace Password
Current Password

New Password
Confirm New Password

Update your Personal Workspace Details
First Name (Given)
Last Name (Family)
Email address

Workspace Log In Reminder
Please enter your username and/or your e-mail address:

Email Address

Searching for Chemicals and Properties

The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (HBCP) contains over 700 tables in over 450 documents which may be divided into several pages, all categorised into 17 major subject areas. The search on this page works by searching the content of each page individually, much like any web search. This provides a challenge if you want to search for multiple terms and those terms exist on different pages, or if you use a synonym/abbreviation that does not exist in the document.

We use metadata to avoid some of these issues by including certain keywords invisibly behind each table. Whilst this approach works well in many situations, like any web search it relies in the terms you have entered existing in the document with the same spelling, abbreviation etc.

Since chemical compounds and their properties are immutable, a single centralised database has been created from all chemical compounds throughout HBCP. This database contains every chemical compound and over 20 of the most common physical properties collated from each of the >700 tables. What's more, the properties can be searched numerically, including range searching, and you can even search by drawing a chemical structure. A complete list of every document table in which the compound occurs is listed, and are hyperlinked to the relevant document table.

The 'Search Chemicals' page can be found by clicking the flask icon in the navigation bar at the top of this page. For more detailed information on how to use the chemical search, including adding properties, saving searches, exporting search results and more, click the help icon in to top right of this page, next to the welcome login message.

Below is an example of a chemical entry, showing its structure, physical properties and document tables in which it appears.

image of an example chemical entry
We use cookies to improve your website experience. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. By continuing to use the website, you consent to our use of cookies.
Cookie Policy

Cookie Policy

We have developed this cookie policy (the “Cookie Policy”) in order to explain how we use cookies and similar technologies (together, “Cookies”) on this website (the “Website”) and to demonstrate our firm commitment to the privacy of your personal information.

The first time that you visit our Website, we notify you about our use of Cookies through a notification banner. By continuing to use the Website, you consent to our use of Cookies as described in this Cookie Policy. However, you can choose whether or not to continue accepting Cookies at any later time. Information on how to manage Cookies is set out later in this Cookie Policy.

Please note that our use of any personal information we collect about you is subject to our Privacy Policy.

What are Cookies?

Cookies are small text files containing user IDs that are automatically placed on your computer or other device by when you visit a website. The Cookies are stored by the internet browser. The browser sends the Cookies back to the website on each subsequent visit, allowing the website to recognise your computer or device. This recognition enables the website provider to observe your activity on the website, deliver a personalised, responsive service and improve the website.

Cookies can be ‘Session Cookies’ or ‘Persistent Cookies’. Session Cookies allow a website to link a series of your actions during one browser session, for example to remember the items you have added to a shopping basket. Session Cookies expire after a browser session and are therefore not stored on your computer or device afterwards. Persistent Cookies are stored on your computer or device between browser sessions and can be used when you make subsequent visits to the website, for example to remember your website preferences, such as language or font size.

Cookies We Use and Their Purpose

We use three types of Cookies - ‘Strictly Necessary’ Cookies, ‘Performance’ Cookies and ‘Functionality’ Cookies. Each type of Cookie and the purposes for which we use them are described in this section. To learn about the specific Cookies we use, please see our List of Cookies.

1. Strictly Necessary Cookies

‘Strictly Necessary’ Cookies enable you to move around the Website and use essential features. For example, if you log into the Website, we use a Cookie to keep you logged in and allow you to access restricted areas, without you having to repeatedly enter your login details. If you are registering for or purchasing a product or service, we will use Cookies to remember your information and selections, as you move through the registration or purchase process.

Strictly Necessary Cookies are necessary for our Website to provide you with a full service. If you disable them, certain essential features of the Website will not be available to you and the performance of the Website will be impeded.

2. Performance Cookies

‘Performance’ Cookies collect information about how you use our Website, for example which pages you visit and if you experience any errors. These Cookies don’t collect any information that could identify you – all the information collected is anonymous. We may use these Cookies to help us understand how you use the Website and assess how well the Website performs and how it could be improved.

3. Functionality Cookies

‘Functionality’ Cookies enable a website to provide you with specific services or a customised experience. We may use these Cookies to provide you with services such as watching a video or adding user comments. We may also use such Cookies to remember changes you make to your settings or preferences (for example, changes to text size or your choice of language or region) or offer you time-saving or personalised features.

You can control whether or not Functionality Cookies are used, but disabling them may mean we are unable to provide you with some services or features of the Website.

First and Third Party Cookies

The Cookies placed on your computer or device include ‘First Party’ Cookies, meaning Cookies that are placed there by us, or by third party service providers acting on our behalf. Where such Cookies are being managed by third parties, we only allow the third parties to use the Cookies for our purposes, as described in this Cookie Policy, and not for their own purposes.

The Cookies placed on your computer or device may also include ‘Third Party’ Cookies, meaning Cookies that are placed there by third parties. These Cookies may include third party advertisers who display adverts on our Website and/or social network providers who provide ‘like’ or ‘share’ capabilities (see the above section on Targeting or Advertising Cookies). They may also include third parties who provide video content which is embedded on our Website (such as YouTube). Please see the website terms and policies of these third parties for further information on their use of Cookies.

To learn about the specific First Party and Third Party Cookies used by our, please see our List of Cookies.

Managing Cookies

You always have a choice over whether or not to accept Cookies. When you first visit the Website and we notify you about our use of Cookies, you can choose not to consent to such use. If you continue to use the Website, you are consenting to our use of Cookies for the time being. However, you can choose not to continue accepting Cookies at any later time. In this section, we describe ways to manage Cookies, including how to disable them.

You can manage Cookies through the settings of your internet browser. You can choose to block or restrict Cookies from being placed on your computer or device. You can also review periodically review the Cookies that have been placed there and disable some or all of them.

You can learn more about how to manage Cookies on the following websites: and

Please be aware that if you choose not to accept certain Cookies, it may mean we are unable to provide you with some services or features of the Website.

Changes to Cookie Policy

In order to keep up with changing legislation and best practice, we may revise this Cookie Policy at any time without notice by posting a revised version on this Website. Please check back periodically so that you are aware of any changes.

Questions or Concerns

If you have any questions or concerns about this Cookie Policy or our use of Cookies on the Website, please contact us by email to [email protected]

You can also contact the Privacy Officer for the Informa PLC group at [email protected].

Our Cookies

Here is a list of cookies we have defined as 'Strictly Necessary':

Taylor and Francis 'First Party' Cookies


















Here is a list of the cookies we have defined as 'Performance'.

'Third Party' Cookies

Google Analytics:





The Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT) is a self-assessment document which discloses how accessible Information and Communication Technology products are in accordance with global standards.

The VPAT disclosure templates do not guarantee product accessibility but provide transparency around the product(s) and enables direction when accessing accessibility requirements.

Taylor & Francis has chosen to complete the International version of VPAT which encompasses Section 508 (US), EN 301 549 (EU) and WCAG2.1 (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) for its products.

Click here for more information about how to use this web application using the keyboard.

This is replaced with text from the script
This is replaced with text from the script
Top Notification Bar Dialog Header
Your Session is about to Expire!
Your session will expire in seconds

Please move your cursor to continue.