Section: 12 | High-Temperature Superconductors |
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John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 103rd Edition (Internet Version 2022), CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
If a specific table is cited, use the format: "Physical Constants of Organic Compounds," in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 103rd Edition (Internet Version 2022), John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.


Jens Hänisch and Stuart C. Wimbush

The following tables list selected physical properties of most known high-temperature superconductors as of the date of compilation in 2021. The classification as a “high-temperature” superconductor is open to some degree of ambiguity. Naming was driven by excitement at the prospect of operation above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (~77 K). However, the reality of superconductor applications today is that few can operate in this regime, while it is clearly illogical to exclude closely related materials of the same family that fall below such an arbitrary cut-off. Instead, we adopt here the classification that a “high-temperature” superconductor is a non-BCS type superconductor that is thereby able to operate beyond the BCS temperature limit of ~30 K. Until relatively recently, this limited the known materials to cuprate compounds; however, this has now been extended by the  families of iron-based superconductors. We do not, however, include all unconventional superconductors, intentionally excluding those isolated examples and families where no related material is able to superconduct at an elevated temperature. Notably, this excludes all the so-called “heavy fermion” superconductors thus far discovered. For the same reason, we also exclude the organic superconductors, which are featured elsewhere in this volume.

The high-temperature superconductors are presented here in a series of tables, one for each distinctly identifiable family.

Table No. Contents
1 Detailed superconducting properties of a select number of materials drawn from families that have been studied in depth due to either importance or accessibility
2 “214” phase materials including (La,Ba)2CuO4, which was the original 1986 Bednorz and Müller discovery of high-temperature superconductivity; here are also found the rare examples of electron-doped cuprates
3 Rare-earth (RE) alkaline-earth (AE) cuprates, including the most famous of the high-temperature superconductors, YBa2Cu3O7; these materials are the core constituents of so-called second-generation commercial high-temperature superconducting wires
4 Derivative materials with missing rare-earth planes; supplementing Table 3
5, 6 Homologous series of two distinct layering schemes of cuprates based on Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, and others, of which Bi2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 is the material used in the production of first-generation commercial high-temperature superconducting wires
7 Chalcogenide families of iron-based superconductors
8 Pnictide families of iron-based superconductors

In compiling and modernizing these data tables, we have sought to be comprehensive in our coverage of the known materials, but selective in the properties to include. In guiding the latter selection, we aim to feature only those properties that are of genuine stand-alone use as figures of merit or in a comparative sense. Because no mere table of data can hope to adequately convey the nuances of materials as complex in structure and properties as the high-temperature superconductors, we avoid qualifications and list in each case the best value to which we have access. This matter of judgment must be supplemented by the reader referring in each case to a primary source to validate the entry. Lattice parameters have been rounded to four decimal places as a compromise between accuracy and generality. Critical temperatures are given to two significant figures for the same reason. The data given in Table 1 are ranges or averages of the most reliable values found in the literature.

The data listed here are compiled from a large number of sources spanning the primary literature. Individual references for each datum are too numerous to list. Secondary sources, as listed in the references (Refs. 1-10), have been used to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the work.


  1. Harshman, D. R. and Mills Jr., A. P., Phys. Rev. B 45, 10684, 1992. []
  2. Rao, C. N. R. et al., Supercond. Sci. Technol. 6, 1, 1993. []
  3. Karppinen, M. and Yamauchi, H., Mater. Sci. Eng. R 26, 51, 1999. []
  4. Martienssen, W. and Warlimont, H., Ed., Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials Data, Springer, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany, 2005. []
  5. Narlikar, A. V., Ed., Frontiers in Superconducting Materials, Springer, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany, 2005. []
  6. Chu, C. W. et al., Physica C 514, 290, 2015. []
  7. Hosono, H. et al., Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16, 033503, 2015. []
  8. Hosono, H. and Kuroki, K., Physica C 514, 399, 2015. []
  9. Naito, M. et al., Physica C 523, 28, 2016. []
  10. Kleiner, R. and Buckel, W., Superconductivity: An Introduction, Third Edition, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2016. []

TABLE 1. Detailed Superconducting Properties of Selected High-Temperature Superconductors

Mol. form.Tcmax/Kξab/nmξc/nmλab/nmλc/μmBc1ab/mTBc1c/mTBc2ab/TBc2c/T
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