Section: 13 | Nomenclature for Organic Polymers |
Help Manual

Page of 1
Type a page number and hit Enter.
  Back to Search Results
Type a page number and hit Enter.
Additional Information
Summary of table differences
No records found.
How to Cite this Reference
The recommended form of citation is:
John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
If a specific table is cited, use the format: "Physical Constants of Organic Compounds," in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 102nd Edition (Internet Version 2021), John R. Rumble, ed., CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.


Robert B. Fox and Edward S. Wilks

Organic polymers have traditionally been named on the basis of the monomer used, a hypothetical monomer or a semi-systematic structure. Alternatively, they may be named in the same way as organic compounds, i.e., on the basis of a structure as drawn. The former method, often called “source-based nomenclature” or “monomer-based nomenclature,” sometimes results in ambiguity and multiple names for a single material. The latter method, termed “structure-based nomenclature,” generates a sometimes cumbersome unique name for a given polymer, independent of its source. Within their limitations, both types of names are acceptable and well-documented. (Ref. 1) The use of stereochemical descriptors with both types of polymer nomenclature has been published. (Ref.2)

Traditional Polymer Names

Monomer-Based Names

“Polystyrene” is the name of a homopolymer made from the single monomer styrene. When the name of a monomer comprises two or more words, the name should be enclosed in parentheses, as in “poly(methyl methacrylate)” or “poly(4-bromostyrene)” to identify the monomer more clearly. This method can result in several names for a given polymer: thus, “poly(ethylene glycol),” “poly(ethylene oxide),” and “poly(oxirane)” describe the same polymer. Sometimes, the name of a hypothetical monomer is used, as in “poly(vinyl alcohol).” Even though a name like “polyethylene” covers a multitude of materials, the system does provide understandable names when a single monomer is involved in the synthesis of a single polymer. When one monomer can yield more than one polymer, e.g., 1,3-butadiene or acrolein, some sort of structural notation must be used to identify the product, and one is not far from a formal structure-based name.

Copolymers, Block Polymers, and Graft Polymers. When more than one monomer is involved, monomer-based names are more complex. Some common polymers have been given names based on an apparent structure, as with “poly(ethylene terephthalate).” A better system has been approved by the IUPAC.(Ref. 1) With this method, the arrangement of the monomeric units is introduced through use of an italicized connective placed between the names of the monomers. For monomer names represented by A, B, and C, the various types of arrangements are shown in Table 1.

Table 2 contains examples of common or semi-systematic names of copolymers. The systematic names of comonomers may also be used; thus, the polyacrylonitrile-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene polymer in Table 2 may also be named poly(prop-2-enenitrile)-block-polybuta-1,3-diene-block-poly(ethenylbenzene). IUPAC does not require alphabetized names of comonomers within a polymer name; many names are thus possible for some copolymers.

These connectives may be used in combination and with small, non-repeating (i.e., non-polymeric) junction units; see, for example, Table 2, line 8. A long dash may be used in place of the connective -block-; thus, in Table 2, the polymers of lines 7 and 8 may also be written as shown on lines 9 and 10.

IUPAC also recommends an alternative scheme for naming copolymers that comprises use of “copoly” as a prefix followed by the names of the comonomers, a solidus (an oblique stroke) to separate comonomer names, and the addition before “copoly” of any applicable connectives listed in Table 2 except -co-.

Table 3 gives the same examples shown in Table 2 but with the alternative format. Comonomer names need not be parenthesized.

TABLE 1. IUPAC Source-Based Copolymer Classification

No.Copolymer typeConnectiveExample
1Unspecified or unknown-co-poly(A-co-B)
2Random (obeys Bernoullian distribution)-ran-poly(A-ran-B)
3Statistical (obeys known statistical laws)-stat-poly(A-stat-B)
4Alternating (for two monomeric units)-alt-poly(A-alt-B)
5Periodic (ordered sequence for 2 or more monomeric units)-per-poly(A-per-B-per-C)
6Block (linear block arrangement)-block-polyA-block-polyB
7Graft (side chains connected to main chains)-graft-polyA-graft-polyB

TABLE 2. Examples of Source-Based Copolymer Nomenclature

No.Copolymer name
2poly[(acrylic acid)-ran-(ethyl acrylate)]
4poly[(sebacic acid)-alt-butanediol]
5poly[(ethylene oxide)-per-(ethylene oxide)-per-tetrahydrofuran]
6polyisoprene-graft-poly(methacrylic acid)

TABLE 3. Examples of Source-Based Copolymer Nomenclature (Alternative Format)

No.Copolymer name
2ran-copoly(acrylic acid/ethyl acrylate)
4alt-copoly(sebacic acid/butanediol)
6per-copoly(ethylene oxide/ethylene oxide/tetrahydrofuran)
7graft-copoly(isoprene/methacrylic acid)

Source-based nomenclature for nonlinear macromolecules and macromolecular assemblies is covered by a 1997 IUPAC document. (Ref. 11) The types of polymers in these classes, together with their connectives, are given in Table 4; the terms shown may be used as connectives, prefixes, or both to designate the features present.

TABLE 4. Connectives for Nonlinear Macromolecules and Macromolecular Assemblies

1Branched (type unspecified)branch
2Branched with branch point of functionality ff-branch
4Cross-linkι (Greek iota)
6Interpenetrating polymer networkipn
7Long-chain branchedl-branch
9Polymer blendblend
10Polymer-polymer complexcompl
11Semi-interpenetrating polymer networksipn
12Short-chain branchedsh-branch
14Star with f-armsf-star

Nonlinear polymers are named by using the italicized connective as a prefix to the source-based name of the polymer component or components to which the prefix applies; some examples are listed in Table 5.

TABLE 5. Nonlinear Macromolecules

No.Polymer namePolymer structural features
1poly(methacrylic acid)-comb-polyacrylonitrileComb polymer with a poly(methacrylic acid) backbone and polyacrylonitrile side chains
2comb-poly[ethylene-stat-(vinyl chloride)]Comb polymer with unspecified backbone composition and statistical ethylene/vinyl chloride copolymer side chains
3polybutadiene-comb-(polyethylene; polypropene)Comb polymer with butadiene backbone and side chains of polyethylene and polypropene
4star-(polyA; polyB; polyC; polyD; polyE)Star polymer with arms derived from monomers A, B, C, D, and E, respectively
5star-(polyA-block-polyB-block-polyC)Star polymer with every arm comprising a triblock segment derived from comonomers A, B, and C
6star-poly(propylene oxide)A star polymer prepared from propylene oxide
75-star-poly(propylene oxide)A 5-arm star polymer prepared from propylene oxide
8star-(polyacrylonitrile; polypropylene) (Mr 10000: 25000)A star polymer containing polyacrylonitrile arms of MW 10000 and polypropylene arms of MW 25000

Macromolecular assemblies held together by forces other than covalent bonds are named by inserting the appropriate italicized connective between names of individual components; Table 6 gives examples.

TABLE 6. Examples of Polymer Blends and Nets

No.Polymer name
2poly(methacrylic acid)-blend-poly(ethyl acrylate)
4net-poly[styrene-alt-(maleic anhydride)]-ι-(polyethylene glycol; polypropylene glycol)
5net-poly(ethyl methacrylate)-sipn-polyethylene

Structure-Based Polymer Nomenclature

Regular Single-Strand Polymers

Structure-based nomenclature has been approved by the IUPA) (Ref. 4) and is currently being updated; it is used by Chemical Abstracts.(Ref. 5) Monomer names are not used. To the extent that a polymer chain can be described by a repeating unit in the chain, it can be named “poly(repeating unit).” For regular single-strand polymers, “repeating unit” is a bivalent group; for regular double-strand (ladder and spiro) polymers, “repeating unit” is usually a tetravalent group. (Ref. 9)

Since there are usually many possible repeating units in a given chain, it is necessary to select one, called the “constitutional repeating unit” (CRU) to provide a unique and unambiguous name, “poly(CRU),” where “CRU” is a recitation of the names of successive units as one proceeds through the CRU from left to right. For this purpose, a portion of the main chain structure that includes at least two repeating sequences is written out. These sequences will typically be composed of bivalent subunits such as -CH2-, -O-, and groups from ring systems, each of which can be named by the usual nomenclature rules.(Refs. 6 and 7)

Where a chain is simply one long sequence comprising repetition of a single subunit, that subunit is itself the CRU, as in “poly(methylene)” or “poly(1,4-phenylene).” In chains having more than one kind of subunit, a seniority system is used to determine the beginning of the CRU and the direction in which to move along the main chain atoms (following the shortest path in rings) to complete the CRU. Determination of the first, most senior, subunit is based on a descending order of seniority: (1) heterocyclic rings, (2) hetero atoms, (3) carbocyclic rings, and lowest, (4) acyclic carbon chains.

Within each of these classes, there is a further order of seniority that follows the usual rules of nomenclature.

Heterocycles: A nitrogen-containing ring system is senior to a ring system not containing nitrogen. (Refs. 4 and 9) Further descending order of seniority is determined by:

Hetero atoms: The senior bivalent subunit is the one nearest the top right-hand corner of the Periodic Table; the order of seniority is: O, S, Se, Te, N, P, As, Sb, Bi, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, B, Hg.

Carbocycles: Seniority (Ref. 4) is determined by:

Carbon chains: Descending order of seniority is determined by:

Among equivalent ring systems, preference is given to the one having lowest locants for the free valences in the subunit, and among otherwise identical ring systems, the one having least hydrogenation is senior. Lowest locants in unsaturated chains are also given preference. Lowest locants for substituents are the final determinant of seniority.

Direction within the repeating unit depends upon the shortest path, which is determined by counting main chain atoms, both cyclic and acyclic, from the most senior subunit to another subunit of the same kind or to a subunit next lower in seniority. When identification and orientation of the CRU have been accomplished, the CRU is named by writing, in sequence, the names of the largest possible subunits within the CRU from left to right. For example, the main chain of the polymer traditionally named “poly(ethylene terephthalate)” has the structure shown in Figure 1.

figure 1 described below

FIGURE 1. Structure-based name: poly(oxyethyleneoxyterephthaloyl); traditional name: poly(ethylene terephthalate).

The CRU in Figure 1 is enclosed in brackets and read from left to right. It is selected because (1) either backbone oxygen atom qualifies as the “most senior subunit,” (2) the shortest path length from either -O- to the other -O- is via the ethylene subunit. Orientation of the CRU is thus defined by (1) beginning at the -O- marked with an asterisk, and (2) reading in the direction of the arrow. The structure-based name of this polymer is therefore “poly(oxyethyleneoxyterephthaloyl),” not much longer than the traditional name and much more adaptable to the complexities of substitution. As organic nomenclature evolves, more systematic names may be used for subunits, e.g., “ethane-1,2-diyl” instead of “ethylene.” IUPAC still prefers “ethylene” for the -CH2-CH2- unit, however, but also accepts “ethane-1,2-diyl.”

Structure-based nomenclature can also be used when the CRU backbone has no carbon atoms. An example is the polymer traditionally named “poly(dimethylsiloxane),” which on the basis of structure would be named “poly(oxydimethylsilylene)” or “poly(oxydimethylsilanediyl).” This nomenclature method has also been applied to inorganic and coordination polymers8 and to double-strand (ladder and spiro) organic polymers. (Ref. 9)

Irregular Single-Strand Polymers

Polymers that cannot be described by the repetition of a single CRU or comprise units not all connected identically in a directional sense can also be named on a structure basis. (Ref. 10) These include copolymers, block and graft polymers, and star polymers. They are given names of the type “poly(A/B/C…),” where A, B, C, etc., are the names of the component constitutional units, the number of which are minimized. The constitutional units may include regular or irregular blocks as well as atoms or atomic groupings, and each is named by the method described above or by the rules of organic nomenclature.

The solidus denotes an unspecified arrangement of the units within the main chain. (Ref. 10) For example, a statistical copolymer derived from styrene and vinyl chloride with the monomeric units joined head-to-tail is named “poly(l-chloroethylene/l-phenylethylene).” A polymer obtained by 1,4-polymerization and both head-to-head and head-to-tail 1,2-polymerization of 1,3-butadiene would be named “poly(but-1-ene-l,4-diyl/l-vinylethylene/2-vinylethylene).” (Ref. 12) In graphic representations of these polymers, shown in Figure 2, the hyphens or dashes at each end of each CRU depiction are shown completely within the enclosing parentheses; this indicates that they are not necessarily the terminal bonds of the macromolecule.

figure 2 described below

FIGURE 2. Graphic representations of copolymers.

A long hyphen is used to separate components in names of block polymers, as in “poly(A)—poly(B)—poly(C),” or “poly(A)—X—poly(B)” in which X is a non-polymeric junction unit, e.g., dimethylsilylene.

In graphic representations of these polymers, the blocks are shown connected when the bonding is known (Figure 3, for example); when the bonding between the blocks is unknown, the blocks are separated by solidi and are shown completely within the outer set of enclosing parentheses (Figure 4, for example). (Refs. 10 and 13)

figure 3 described below

FIGURE 3. polystyrene—polyethylene—polystyrene.

figure 4 described below

FIGURE 4. poly[poly(methyl methacrylate)—polystyrene—poly(methyl acrylate)].

Graft polymers are named in the same way as a substituted polymer but without the ending “yl” for the grafted chain; the name of a regular polymer, comprising Z units in which some have grafts of “poly(A),” is “poly[Z/poly(A)Z].” Star polymers are treated as a central unit with substituent blocks, as in “tetrakis(polymethylene)silane.” (Refs. 10 and 13)


Other Nomenclature Articles and Publications

In addition to the Chemical Abstracts and IUPAC documents cited above and listed below, other articles on polymer nomenclature are available. A 1999 article lists significant documents on polymer nomenclature published during the last 50 years in books, encyclopedias, and journals by Chemical Abstracts, IUPAC, and individual authors. (Ref. 14) A comprehensive review of source-based and structure-based nomenclature for all of the major classes of polymers, (Ref. 15) and a short tutorial on the correct identification, orientation, and naming of most commonly encountered constitutional repeating units were both published in 2000. Ref. 16).

References and Notes

  1. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Compendium of Macromolecular Nomenclature, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1991.
  2. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Stereochemical Definitions and Notations Relating to Polymers (Recommendations 1980), Pure Appl. Chem., 53, 733–752 (1981). []
  3. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Source-Based Nomenclature for Copolymers (Recommendations 1985), Pure Appl. Chem., 57, 1427–1440 (1985). []
  4. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Nomenclature of Regular Single-Strand Organic Polymers (Recommendations 1975, Pure Appl. Chem., 48, 373–385 (1976). []
  5. Chemical Abstracts Service, Naming and Indexing of Chemical Substances for Chemical Abstracts, Appendix IV, Chemical Abstracts 1999 Index Guide.
  6. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (1993), Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1993.
  7. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, Sections A, B, C, D, E, F, and H, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1979.
  8. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Nomenclature of Regular Double-Strand and Quasi-Single-Strand Inorganic and Coordination Polymers (Recommendations 1984), Pure Appl. Chem., 57, 149–168 (1985).
  9. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Nomenclature of Regular Double-Strand (Ladder and Spiro) Organic Polymers (Recommendations 1993), Pure Appl. Chem., 65, 1561–1580 (1993). []
  10. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Structure-Based Nomenclature for Irregular Single-Strand Organic Polymers (Recommendations 1994), Pure Appl. Chem., 66, 873–889 (1994). []
  11. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Source-Based Nomenclature for Non-Linear Macromolecules and Macromolecular Assemblies (Recommendations 1997). Pure Appl. Chem., 69, 2511–2521 (1997). []
  12. Poly(1,3-butadiene) obtained by polymerization of 1,3-butadiene in the so-called 1,4- mode is frequently drawn incorrectly in publications as -(CH2-CH=CH-CH2)n-; the double bond should be assigned the lowest locant possible, i.e., the structure should be drawn as -(CH=CH-CH2-CH2)n-.
  13. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Graphic Representations (Chemical Formulae) of Macromolecules (Recommendations 1994). Pure Appl. Chem., 66, 2469–2482 (1994). []
  14. Wilks, E. S. Macromolecular Nomenclature Note No. 17: "Whither Nomenclature?" Polym. Prepr. 40(2), 6–11 (1999).
  15. Wilks, E. S. Polymer Nomenclature: The Controversy Between Source-Based and Structure-Based Representations (A Personal Perspective). Prog. Polym. Sci. 25, 9–100 (2000). []
  16. Wilks, E. S. Macromolecular Nomenclature Note No. 18: SRUs: Using the Rules. Polym. Prepr. 41(1), 6a–11a (2000).
Page 1 of 1

Entry Display
This is where the entry will be displayed

Log In - Individual User
You are not within the network of a subscribing institution.
Please sign in with an Individual User account to continue.
Note that Workspace accounts are not valid.

Confirm Log Out
Are you sure?
Log In to Your Workspace
Your personal workspace allows you to save and access your searches and bookmarks.
Remember Me
This will save a cookie on your browser

If you do not have a workspace Log In click here to create one.
Forgotten your workspace password? Click here for an e-mail reminder.
Log Out From Your Workspace
Are you sure?
Create your personal workspace
First Name (Given)
Last Name (Family)
Email address
Confirm Password

Incorrect login details
You have entered your Workspace sign in credentials instead of Individual User sign in credentials.
You must be authenticated within your organisation's network IP range in order to access your Workspace account.
Click the help icon for more information on the differences between these two accounts.
Incorrect login details
You have entered your Individual User account sign in credentials instead of Workspace credentials.
While using this network, a personal workspace account can be created to save your bookmarks and search preferences for later use.
Click the help icon for more information on the differences between Individual User accounts and Workspace accounts.
My Account

Change Your Workspace Password
Current Password

New Password
Confirm New Password

Update your Personal Workspace Details
First Name (Given)
Last Name (Family)
Email address

Workspace Log In Reminder
Please enter your username and/or your e-mail address:

Email Address

Searching for Chemicals and Properties

The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (HBCP) contains over 700 tables in over 450 documents which may be divided into several pages, all categorised into 17 major subject areas. The search on this page works by searching the content of each page individually, much like any web search. This provides a challenge if you want to search for multiple terms and those terms exist on different pages, or if you use a synonym/abbreviation that does not exist in the document.

We use metadata to avoid some of these issues by including certain keywords invisibly behind each table. Whilst this approach works well in many situations, like any web search it relies in the terms you have entered existing in the document with the same spelling, abbreviation etc.

Since chemical compounds and their properties are immutable, a single centralised database has been created from all chemical compounds throughout HBCP. This database contains every chemical compound and over 20 of the most common physical properties collated from each of the >700 tables. What's more, the properties can be searched numerically, including range searching, and you can even search by drawing a chemical structure. A complete list of every document table in which the compound occurs is listed, and are hyperlinked to the relevant document table.

The 'Search Chemicals' page can be found by clicking the flask icon in the navigation bar at the top of this page. For more detailed information on how to use the chemical search, including adding properties, saving searches, exporting search results and more, click the help icon in to top right of this page, next to the welcome login message.

Below is an example of a chemical entry, showing its structure, physical properties and document tables in which it appears.

image of an example chemical entry
We use cookies to improve your website experience. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. By continuing to use the website, you consent to our use of cookies.
Cookie Policy

Cookie Policy

We have developed this cookie policy (the “Cookie Policy”) in order to explain how we use cookies and similar technologies (together, “Cookies”) on this website (the “Website”) and to demonstrate our firm commitment to the privacy of your personal information.

The first time that you visit our Website, we notify you about our use of Cookies through a notification banner. By continuing to use the Website, you consent to our use of Cookies as described in this Cookie Policy. However, you can choose whether or not to continue accepting Cookies at any later time. Information on how to manage Cookies is set out later in this Cookie Policy.

Please note that our use of any personal information we collect about you is subject to our Privacy Policy.

What are Cookies?

Cookies are small text files containing user IDs that are automatically placed on your computer or other device by when you visit a website. The Cookies are stored by the internet browser. The browser sends the Cookies back to the website on each subsequent visit, allowing the website to recognise your computer or device. This recognition enables the website provider to observe your activity on the website, deliver a personalised, responsive service and improve the website.

Cookies can be ‘Session Cookies’ or ‘Persistent Cookies’. Session Cookies allow a website to link a series of your actions during one browser session, for example to remember the items you have added to a shopping basket. Session Cookies expire after a browser session and are therefore not stored on your computer or device afterwards. Persistent Cookies are stored on your computer or device between browser sessions and can be used when you make subsequent visits to the website, for example to remember your website preferences, such as language or font size.

Cookies We Use and Their Purpose

We use three types of Cookies - ‘Strictly Necessary’ Cookies, ‘Performance’ Cookies and ‘Functionality’ Cookies. Each type of Cookie and the purposes for which we use them are described in this section. To learn about the specific Cookies we use, please see our List of Cookies.

1. Strictly Necessary Cookies

‘Strictly Necessary’ Cookies enable you to move around the Website and use essential features. For example, if you log into the Website, we use a Cookie to keep you logged in and allow you to access restricted areas, without you having to repeatedly enter your login details. If you are registering for or purchasing a product or service, we will use Cookies to remember your information and selections, as you move through the registration or purchase process.

Strictly Necessary Cookies are necessary for our Website to provide you with a full service. If you disable them, certain essential features of the Website will not be available to you and the performance of the Website will be impeded.

2. Performance Cookies

‘Performance’ Cookies collect information about how you use our Website, for example which pages you visit and if you experience any errors. These Cookies don’t collect any information that could identify you – all the information collected is anonymous. We may use these Cookies to help us understand how you use the Website and assess how well the Website performs and how it could be improved.

3. Functionality Cookies

‘Functionality’ Cookies enable a website to provide you with specific services or a customised experience. We may use these Cookies to provide you with services such as watching a video or adding user comments. We may also use such Cookies to remember changes you make to your settings or preferences (for example, changes to text size or your choice of language or region) or offer you time-saving or personalised features.

You can control whether or not Functionality Cookies are used, but disabling them may mean we are unable to provide you with some services or features of the Website.

First and Third Party Cookies

The Cookies placed on your computer or device include ‘First Party’ Cookies, meaning Cookies that are placed there by us, or by third party service providers acting on our behalf. Where such Cookies are being managed by third parties, we only allow the third parties to use the Cookies for our purposes, as described in this Cookie Policy, and not for their own purposes.

The Cookies placed on your computer or device may also include ‘Third Party’ Cookies, meaning Cookies that are placed there by third parties. These Cookies may include third party advertisers who display adverts on our Website and/or social network providers who provide ‘like’ or ‘share’ capabilities (see the above section on Targeting or Advertising Cookies). They may also include third parties who provide video content which is embedded on our Website (such as YouTube). Please see the website terms and policies of these third parties for further information on their use of Cookies.

To learn about the specific First Party and Third Party Cookies used by our, please see our List of Cookies.

Managing Cookies

You always have a choice over whether or not to accept Cookies. When you first visit the Website and we notify you about our use of Cookies, you can choose not to consent to such use. If you continue to use the Website, you are consenting to our use of Cookies for the time being. However, you can choose not to continue accepting Cookies at any later time. In this section, we describe ways to manage Cookies, including how to disable them.

You can manage Cookies through the settings of your internet browser. You can choose to block or restrict Cookies from being placed on your computer or device. You can also review periodically review the Cookies that have been placed there and disable some or all of them.

You can learn more about how to manage Cookies on the following websites: and

Please be aware that if you choose not to accept certain Cookies, it may mean we are unable to provide you with some services or features of the Website.

Changes to Cookie Policy

In order to keep up with changing legislation and best practice, we may revise this Cookie Policy at any time without notice by posting a revised version on this Website. Please check back periodically so that you are aware of any changes.

Questions or Concerns

If you have any questions or concerns about this Cookie Policy or our use of Cookies on the Website, please contact us by email to [email protected]

You can also contact the Privacy Officer for the Informa PLC group at [email protected].

Our Cookies

Here is a list of cookies we have defined as 'Strictly Necessary':

Taylor and Francis 'First Party' Cookies


















Here is a list of the cookies we have defined as 'Performance'.

'Third Party' Cookies

Google Analytics:





The Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT) is a self-assessment document which discloses how accessible Information and Communication Technology products are in accordance with global standards.

The VPAT disclosure templates do not guarantee product accessibility but provide transparency around the product(s) and enables direction when accessing accessibility requirements.

Taylor & Francis has chosen to complete the International version of VPAT which encompasses Section 508 (US), EN 301 549 (EU) and WCAG2.1 (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) for its products.

Click here for more information about how to use this web application using the keyboard.

This is replaced with text from the script
This is replaced with text from the script
Top Notification Bar Dialog Header
Your Session is about to Expire!
Your session will expire in seconds

Please move your cursor to continue.